|Characterisation Method Name:|
|Arsenic air emissions impact on YOLL|
|Principal Method Name:|
|EPS: cancer pathways|
|YOLL stands for Year of Lost Life.|
The characterisation factor is determined by the empirical method.
Category indicator value in system considered
At present source strengths and source configurations in Sweden the only mechanism
causing excess mortality is that via increased cancer rates.
USEPA estimates the lifetime risk for cancer to be 3.4E-03 /mg/m 3 of As in air (1999)
The mortality for all sorts of cancer in the European union was 62 % 1990. (Berrino et.al.
1999). The global average 1990 may be calculated to 64% using statistics from IARC(International Association for Research on Cancer)(Parkin et. al., 1990, Pisani et. al., 1990). The average reduction of life expectancy was estimated in "Benzene impact on YOLL" to 24 years. The Swedish average life expectancy is 78 years. The mean population exposure is about 7 ng/m3 in Sweden (Boström, 1994). This will give
0.62*3.4E-03 *7E-03 *8.6E+06 /78*24 = 39.0 YOLL among the 8.6 million inhabitants.
Contribution to category indicators value from a flow unit
The total emission of As in Sweden was around 40000 kg 1985. The contribution to the
annual category indicator value is therefore 1/40000.
Calculation of characterisation factor
A characterisation factor for Sweden would thus be 39.0/40000 = 9.75E-04 YOLL per kg
of As emitted to air. The system border was actually 20 years and therefore the emission
and effect should be summarised over 20 years before the calculation of the
characterisation factor was made. However as the effect is linearly dependent of the
emission the characterisation factor would still be 9.75E-04 .
|1. USEPA, AIRS web database, 1999. 2. Parkin, D.M., Pisani, P. and Ferlay, J., “Estimates of the worldwide mortality from 25 major cancers in 1990”. International Journal of Cancer. (In Press) 3. Boström, C-E., Almén, J., Steen, B. and Westerholm, R., “Human Exposure to Air Pollution” Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol 102, Suppplement 4, October 1994, p.39-47. 4. Berrino, F., Capocaccia, R., Esteve, J., Gatta, G., Micheli, A., Sant, M., & Verdecchia, A. (1999) Survival of Cancer Patients in Europe in the late eighties: The EUROCARE II Study (IARC Scientific Publication No. 151) International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon. In press|
|The residence time in air for particles is in the order of days to weeks depending on particle size, precipitation, and concentration of other particles and condensable gases. In terms of contribution to population exposure urban populations are receiving the highest doses and mainly from their local sources. The background levels are low compared to urban levels, which means that the trans-boundary pollution may be neglected. Considering an incubation time of the order of 20 years, and that most of the data available are from 1985 the system is defined as Sweden at the state of 1985 during 20 years. As the effects are regarded to be linear, only the year 1985 is studied and assumed to be representative for the 20-year period.|
|Characterisation Parameter||Category Indicator||Impact Indication Principle||Aspect||Substance||Quantity||Unit||Notes|
|As||9.75E-04||p yr/kg||Cancer pathway|