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Characterisation Method Information
Characterisation Method Name:
Formaldehyde impact on crop
Version:
1999
Date Completed:
1999
Principal Method Name:
EPS: oxidant and global warming pathways
Method Description:
Model 1, oxidant pathway

The characterisation factor is determined by an equivalency method using ethylene as a reference.

Equivalency factor

The POCP (Photo Oxidant Creation Potential) for formaldehyde is 0.424 (Lindfors et al.,1994)

Calculation of characterisation factor

The oxidant pathway specific
characterisation factor of ethylene for crop is determined to 4.86 kg crop/kg ethylene. This gives an oxidant pathway specific characterisation factor of formaldehyde for crop of 0.424*4.86 = 2.06 kg crop/kg formaldehyde.

Model 2, global warming pathway

The characterisation factor is determined by an equivalency method using CO2 as a reference.

Equivalency factor

The GWP100 was estimated by IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) to 11 in one of the early reports. (1990). Later this statement was withdrawn by IPCC, with the motivation that the uncertainty was too large. In the EPS context however, omitting it would create a larger error than including it, so the equivalency factor 11 will still be used.

Calculation of pathway specific characterisation factor

The characterisation factor of CO2 for crop loss is 7.56Eľ04 kg crop/kg CO2. Thus the
characterisation factor of formaldehyde for crop loss is 11*7.56Eľ04 = 8.32Eľ03 kg
crop/kg formaldehyde.

Calculation of characterisation factor

The total characterisation factor for both pathways is thus 2.06 + 8.32Eľ03 = 2.07 kg crop/kg formaldehyde.
Literature Reference:
1. Houghton, J.T Jenkins, G.J. and Ephraums, J.J., (Ed.) (1990) Climate change ľ The IPCC scientific assessment. Cambridge University Press 2. Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A., Hanssen, O-J., R°nning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., LCA-Nordic, Technical report No 10, Tema Nord 1995:503, Nordic Council of Ministers, Copenhagen 1994.
Methodological Range:
The ozone level in rural areas has increased significantly since pre-industrial time. The reaction velocity for formaldehyde to form oxidants is normally in the order of days, but in the dark periods in the arctic regions the residence time of formaldehyde can be much longer. However a time system border of one year is believed to be sufficient for impact modelling. The system borders used for the oxidant model are thus global and the year 1990. For the global warming pathway the same system borders as for CO2 apply, i.e. 100 years.
Notes:

Existing Characterisation Factors of Formaldehyde impact on crop
Characterisation Parameter Category Indicator Impact Indication Principle Aspect Substance Quantity Unit Notes
CFactor Crop EPS/2000
Type = Emission
Direction = Output
Media = Air
Geography = *
Formaldehyde 2.07 kg/kg 2 pathways