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Characterisation Method Information
Characterisation Method Name:
Formaldehyde impact on severe morbidity
Version:
1999
Date Completed:
1999
Principal Method Name:
EPS: cancer, oxidant and global warming pathways;
Method Description:
Model 1, cancer pathway

The characterisation factor is determined by an equivalency method using benzene as a reference.

Equivalency factor

The equivalency factor was determined in "Formaldehyde impact on YOLL" to 2.60.

Calculation of pathway specific characterisation factor

The cancer pathway specific characterisation factor of benzene for severe morbidity was
determined to 2.28E-06 person-years per kg. Thus the cancer pathway specific characterisation factor of formaldehyde for severe morbidity is 2.60*2.28E-06 = 5.93E-06 person-years per kg formaldehyde.

Model 2, global warming pathway

The characterisation factor is determined by an equivalency method using CO2 as a reference.

Equivalency factor

The GWP100 was estimated by IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) to 11 in one of the early reports. (1990). Later this statement was withdrawn by IPCC, with the motivation that the uncertainty was too large. In the EPS context however, omitting it would create a larger error than including it, so the equivalency factor 11 will still be used.

Calculation of pathway specific characterisation factor

The characterisation factor for CO2 is determined to 3.53Eľ07 person-years/kg, which means that the characterisation factor of formaldehyde for severe morbidity is 11*3.53Eľ07 = 3.88Eľ06 person-years/kg.


Model 3, oxidant pathway

The characterisation factor is determined by an equivalency method using ethylene as a
reference.

Equivalency factor

The POCP for formaldehyde is 0.424 (Lindfors et al.,1994)

Calculation of characterisation factor

The oxidant pathway specific characterisation factor of ethylene for severe morbidity is determined to 6.76E-07 person-years/kg ethylene. This gives a oxidant pathway specific characterisation factor of formaldehyde for severe morbidity of 0.424*6.76E-07 = 2.87E-07 person-years/kg.

Calculation of characterisation factor

The resulting characterisation factor from adding the three pathways is 5.93E-06 +
3.88Eľ06 + 2.87E-07 = 1.01E-05 person-years/kg
Literature Reference:
1. Houghton, J.T Jenkins, G.J. and Ephraums, J.J., (Ed.) (1990) Climate change ľ The IPCC scientific assessment. Cambridge University Press 2. Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A., Hanssen, O-J., R°nning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., LCA-Nordic, Technical report No 10, Tema Nord 1995:503, Nordic Council of Ministers, Copenhagen 1994.
Methodological Range:
Including emissions from anywhere at the globe 1990 and considering a residence time of several days for formaldehyde and its reaction products, the environmental system will also be global. As formaldehyde causes cancer, there is a reason for using a 20-year system border, but as we use a linear dose-response model, we restrict the system borders to the year 1990. For the global warming pathways the same system borders as for CO2 is relevant, i.e. 100 years.
Notes:

Existing Characterisation Factors of Formaldehyde impact on severe morbidity
Characterisation Parameter Category Indicator Impact Indication Principle Aspect Substance Quantity Unit Notes
CFactor Severe morbidity EPS/2000
Type = Emission
Direction = Output
Media = Air
Geography = *
Formaldehyde 1.01E-05 p yr/kg 3 pathways