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Characterisation Method Information
Characterisation Method Name:
PM10 impact on severe morbidity
Version:
1999
Date Completed:
1999
Principal Method Name:
EPS: acute effects and hospitalisation pathway and global warming pathway
Method Description:
Model 1, acute effects and hospitalisation pathway

The characterisation factor is determined by an empirical method.

Category indicator value in system considered

Rosendahl (1998) estimates the elasticity in hospitalisation due to increased mean PM10
concentrations for Norway to 20 – 30 ‘bed-days’ per 100000 inhabitants and year and
mg/m 3 . The ExternE project (1995) estimates hospital admission for Respiratory
Infections and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease to 1.87E-06 and 2.27E-06 cases
per person per year per mg/m 3 respectively. They assume that the average time for
hospitalisation is about 25 days. ExternE also use figures for changes in emergency room visits for asthma of 1.29E-05 , for emergency room visits for Chronic Obstructive
Pulmonary Disease to 7.2E-06 and hospital visits for childhood croup of 2.91E-05 cases
per person per year per mg/m 3 . The duration of the effect is assumed (here) to be 1 day.
Therefore the value 4.14E-06 *(25/365) + 4.92E-05 *(1/365) = 4.18E-07 person-years per
person per year per mg/m 3 is used as a model for the exposure-response function for
average PM10 concentration and severe morbidity.
Using the global average of 46 mg/m 3 , which was estimated in "PM10 impact on YOLL", a total global severe
morbidity of 102000 person-years per year is obtained.

Contribution to category indicators value from a flow unit

The same contribution apply as for model 1 in section "PM10 impact on YOLL", i.e. 2/3E-11 per kg of PM10.

Calculation of pathway specific characterisation factor

102000*2/3E-11 = 6.80E-07 person-years/kg PM10

Model 2, global warming pathway

The characterisation factor is determined by an equivalency method using CO2 as a
reference.

Equivalency factor

The GWP for PM10 was determined to – 8.54 in section "PM10 impact on YOLL"

Calculation of pathway specific characterisation factor

The characterisation factors for CO2 with respect to severe morbidity was determined to 3.53E-07 person-years/kg CO2. Thus we obtain the characterisation factor for
PM10 to –8.54*3.53E-07 = - 3.01E-06 person-years/ kg PM10.

Calculation of characterisation factor

The characterisation factor for both pathways is thus 6.80E-07 - 3.01E-06 = -2.33E-06
person-years/ kg PM10.

Literature Reference:
1. Rosendahl, K.,E., (1998) Health effects and social costs of particulate pollution - a case study for Oslo, Environmental modelling and assessment 3 (1998) 47 -61. 2. ExternE, (1995) "Externalities of Energy" European Commission, DG-XII, Vol 2, "Methodology", Brussels-Luxembourg, 1995. 3. IPPC, “The 1994 Report of the Scientific Assessment Working Group of IPCC. Summary for policymakers”, WMO and UNEP, 1994
Methodological Range:
For reasons mentioned in "PM10 impact on YOLL" global system borders are chosen. The time period investigated is the year 1990
Notes:

Existing Characterisation Factors of PM10 impact on severe morbidity
Characterisation Parameter Category Indicator Impact Indication Principle Aspect Substance Quantity Unit Notes
CFactor Severe morbidity EPS/2000
Type = Emission
Direction = Output
Media = Air
Geography = *
PM10 2.33E-06 p yr/kg 2 pathway