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Characterisation Method Information
Characterisation Method Name:
Pesticides impact on YOLL
Version:
1999
Date Completed:
1999
Principal Method Name:
EPS: empirical method
Method Description:
YOLL stands for Year of Lost Life.


Model

The characterisation factor is determined by the empirical method.

Category indicator value in system considered

According to WHO/FAO (World Health Organisation/Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)(1999), there are 20000 deaths per year due to acute poisoning from pesticides. The average YOLL per case is not known, but assumed to be 30 years, because most of the accidents occur in third world countries and presumably among the younger less experienced part of the population. Consequently, the total indicator value in the system is 20000*30 = 6E+05 .

Contribution to category indicators value from a flow unit

The global use of pesticides in terms of active substance is growing. 1985 it was 3
million tonnes and 1975 1.8 million tonnes (WHO/UNEP 1990). An extrapolation of the
trend gives an estimate of the use to 3.6 million tonnes 1990. The average contribution
(disregarding varying toxicity and exposure pattern) is therefore 2.78E-10 per kg
pesticide. To some extent it is possible to improve the estimations by identifying the
pesticide and considering the toxicity of the pesticide in use. When doing so it would be an advantage of knowing the total amounts of various pesticides used globally. However,
such figures have not been found and do not seem to be available. Therefore, instead of
determining the specific contribution for a certain pesticide according to

(1/Rfdi)/S(ai/Rfdi),

where
ai is the total used of pesticide nr i, in kg/year and Rfd is the reference dose in kg, a correction is made of the average contribution a with a potency factor of

Rfdmean/Rfdi,
where Rfdmean = n/S(1/Rfdi). It is thus assumed that all pesticides are use in equal
amounts. Below, estimation is made of the uncertainty introduced by this simplification.

Calculation of characterisation factor

For the average pesticide, the characterisation factor is estimated to

6E+05 *2.78E-10 = 1.67E-04 YOLL/kg.

Literature Reference:
WHO/FAO 1999 Steen B (1999b): A systematic approach to environmental priority strategies in product development (EPS). Version 2000 – Models and data of the default method CPM report Chalmers University of Technology Sweden
Methodological Range:
Some pesticides are transported globally. They may be found in areas where no use exists, like in the Arctic’s. Some are persistent and have a long residence time in the environment. Pesticides may cause some long term effects like cancer. As all effect models are linear, the system border will however be global and include the year 1990.
Notes:

Existing Characterisation Factors of Pesticides impact on YOLL
Characterisation Parameter Category Indicator Impact Indication Principle Aspect Substance Quantity Unit Notes
CFactor YOLL EPS/2000
Type = Emission
Direction = Output
Media = *
Geography = *
2,4,5-Trichloropheno xyacetic acid 3.58E-06 p yr/kg
CFactor YOLL EPS/2000
Type = Emission
Direction = Output
Media = *
Geography = *
2,4-Dichloropheno xyacetic acid 3.58E-06 p yr/kg
CFactor YOLL EPS/2000
Type = Emission
Direction = Output
Media = *
Geography = *
Alachlor 3.58E-06 p yr/kg
CFactor YOLL EPS/2000
Type = Emission
Direction = Output
Media = *
Geography = *
Aldicarb 3.58E-05 p yr/kg
CFactor YOLL EPS/2000
Type = Emission
Direction = Output
Media = *
Geography = *
Aldrin 1.19E-03 p yr/kg
CFactor YOLL EPS/2000
Type = Emission
Direction = Output
Media = *
Geography = *
Atrazine 1.02E-06 p yr/kg
CFactor YOLL EPS/2000
Type = Emission
Direction = Output
Media = *
Geography = *
Benomyl 7.16E-07 p yr/kg
CFactor YOLL EPS/2000
Type = Emission
Direction = Output
Media = *
Geography = *
Captan 2.75E-07 p yr/kg
CFactor YOLL EPS/2000
Type = Emission
Direction = Output
Media = *
Geography = *
Carbaryl 3.58E-07 p yr/kg
CFactor YOLL EPS/2000
Type = Emission
Direction = Output
Media = *
Geography = *
Carbofuran 7.16E-06 p yr/kg
CFactor YOLL EPS/2000
Type = Emission
Direction = Output
Media = *
Geography = *
Chlordane 7.16E-05 p yr/kg
CFactor YOLL EPS/2000
Type = Emission
Direction = Output
Media = *
Geography = *
Chlorpyrifos 1.19E-05 p yr/kg
CFactor YOLL EPS/2000
Type = Emission
Direction = Output
Media = *
Geography = *
Cypermethrin 3.58E-06 p yr/kg
CFactor YOLL EPS/2000
Type = Emission
Direction = Output
Media = *
Geography = *
Demeton 8.95E-05 p yr/kg
CFactor YOLL EPS/2000
Type = Emission
Direction = Output
Media = *
Geography = *
Dichlorvos 7.16E-05 p yr/kg
CFactor YOLL EPS/2000
Type = Emission
Direction = Output
Media = *
Geography = *
Dieldrin 7.16E-04 p yr/kg
CFactor YOLL EPS/2000
Type = Emission
Direction = Output
Media = *
Geography = *
Diflubenzuron 1.79E-06 p yr/kg
CFactor YOLL EPS/2000
Type = Emission
Direction = Output
Media = *
Geography = *
Dimethoate 8.95E-06 p yr/kg
CFactor YOLL EPS/2000
Type = Emission
Direction = Output
Media = *
Geography = *
Diquat 1.63E-05 p yr/kg
CFactor YOLL EPS/2000
Type = Emission
Direction = Output
Media = *
Geography = *
Disulfoton 8.95E-04 p yr/kg
CFactor YOLL EPS/2000
Type = Emission
Direction = Output
Media = *
Geography = *
Endosulfan 5.97E-06 p yr/kg
CFactor YOLL EPS/2000
Type = Emission
Direction = Output
Media = *
Geography = *
Endrin 1.19E-04 p yr/kg
CFactor YOLL EPS/2000
Type = Emission
Direction = Output
Media = *
Geography = *
Fenamiphos 1.43E-04 p yr/kg
CFactor YOLL EPS/2000
Type = Emission
Direction = Output
Media = *
Geography = *
Glyphosate 3.58E-07 p yr/kg
CFactor YOLL EPS/2000
Type = Emission
Direction = Output
Media = *
Geography = *
Heptachlor 7.16E-05 p yr/kg
CFactor YOLL EPS/2000
Type = Emission
Direction = Output
Media = *
Geography = *
Hexachlorobenzene 4.47E-05 p yr/kg
CFactor YOLL EPS/2000
Type = Emission
Direction = Output
Media = *
Geography = *
Lindane 1.19E-04 p yr/kg
CFactor YOLL EPS/2000
Type = Emission
Direction = Output
Media = *
Geography = *
Malathion 1.79E-06 p yr/kg
CFactor YOLL EPS/2000
Type = Emission
Direction = Output
Media = *
Geography = *
Methomyl 1.43E-06 p yr/kg
CFactor YOLL EPS/2000
Type = Emission
Direction = Output
Media = *
Geography = *
Methoxychlor 7.16E-06 p yr/kg
CFactor YOLL EPS/2000
Type = Emission
Direction = Output
Media = *
Geography = *
Naled 1.79E-05 p yr/kg
CFactor YOLL EPS/2000
Type = Emission
Direction = Output
Media = *
Geography = *
Oxamyl 1.43E-06 p yr/kg
CFactor YOLL EPS/2000
Type = Emission
Direction = Output
Media = *
Geography = *
Paraquat 7.95E-06 p yr/kg
CFactor YOLL EPS/2000
Type = Emission
Direction = Output
Media = *
Geography = *
Permethrin 7.16E-07 p yr/kg
CFactor YOLL EPS/2000
Type = Emission
Direction = Output
Media = *
Geography = *
Phosphine 1.19E-04 p yr/kg
CFactor YOLL EPS/2000
Type = Emission
Direction = Output
Media = *
Geography = *
Pirimifosmethyl 3.58E-06 p yr/kg
CFactor YOLL EPS/2000
Type = Emission
Direction = Output
Media = *
Geography = *
Propachlor 2.75E-06 p yr/kg
CFactor YOLL EPS/2000
Type = Emission
Direction = Output
Media = *
Geography = *
Resmethrin 1.19E-06 p yr/kg
CFactor YOLL EPS/2000
Type = Emission
Direction = Output
Media = *
Geography = *
Sodium fluoracetate 1.78E-03 p yr/kg
CFactor YOLL EPS/2000
Type = Emission
Direction = Output
Media = *
Geography = *
Thallium sulfate 4.47E-04 p yr/kg
CFactor YOLL EPS/2000
Type = Emission
Direction = Output
Media = *
Geography = *
Thiram 7.16E-06 p yr/kg
CFactor YOLL EPS/2000
Type = Emission
Direction = Output
Media = *
Geography = *
Warfarin 1.19E-04 p yr/kg
CFactor YOLL EPS/2000
Type = Emission
Direction = Output
Media = *
Geography = *
Zinc phosphide 1.19E-04 p yr/kg