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Characterisation Method Information
Characterisation Method Name:
Propylene impact on YOLL
Version:
1999
Date Completed:
1999
Principal Method Name:
EPS: cancer pathway, global warming pathway and oxidant formation pathway
Method Description:
YOLL stands for Year of Lost Life.


Model 1, cancer pathway

The characterisation factor is determined by an equivalency method using benzene as a
reference.

Equivalency factor

Victorin (1998) uses USEPA estimates of the lifetime cancer risk for propylene-oxide for
which the lifetime inhalation unit risk is 3.7E-06 per mg/m 3 and assumes a metabolisation rate of 10% to estimate the cancer risk for propylene. This will give an estimate that is 0.074 times the risk of benzene (5E-06 ).

Calculation of characterisation factor

The characterisation factor of benzene for YOLL was determined to 1.95E-05 YOLL/kg benzene. Thus the characterisation factor of propylene for YOLL is 0.074*1.95E-05 = 1.44E-06 YOLL/kg.

Model 2, global warming pathway

The characterisation factor is determined by an equivalency method using CO2 as a reference.

Equivalency factor

The GWP100 (Global Warming Potential) was estimated by IPCC(Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) to 11 in one of the early reports. (1990). Later this statement was withdrawn by IPCC, with the motivation that the uncertainty was too large. In the EPS context however, omitting it would create a larger error than including it, so the equivalency factor 11 will still be used.

Calculation of pathway specific characterisation factor

The characterisation factor of CO2 for YOLL was determined to 7.93E–07 YOLL/kg CO2 . The characterisation factor of propylene for YOLL will therefore be 11*7.93E–07 = 8.72E–06 YOLL/kg propylene.

Model 3, oxidant formation pathway

The characterisation factor is determined by an equivalency method using ethylene as a
reference.

Equivalency factor

The POCP(Photo Oxidant Creation Potential) for propylene is 0.734 (Lindfors et al.,1994)

Calculation of pathway specific characterisation factor

The oxidant pathway specific characterisation factor of ethylene for YOLL is 1.20E-05 YOLL/kg ethylene. This means that the oxidant pathway specific characterisation factor for propylene will be 0.734*1.20E-05 = 8.81E-06 YOLL/kg.

Calculation of characterisation factor

The resulting characterisation factor from adding the three pathways is 1.44E-06 +
8.72E–06 + 8.81E-06 = 1.90E-05 YOLL/kg propylene.


Literature Reference:
1. Victorin, K., “Risk assessment of carcinogenic air pollutants”, IMM-report 1/98, Karolinska institutet, Stockholm 1998. 2. Houghton, J.T Jenkins, G.J. and Ephraums, J.J., (Ed.) (1990) Climate change – The IPCC scientific assessment. Cambridge University Press 3. Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A., Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., LCA-Nordic, Technical report No 10, Tema Nord 1995:503, Nordic Council of Ministers, Copenhagen 1994.
Methodological Range:
Including emissions from anywhere at the globe 1990 and considering a residence time of several days to weeks for propylene, the environmental system chosen is global. As propylene causes cancer, there is a reason for using a 20-year system border, but because the use of a linear dose-response model, the system borders can be restricted to the year 1990. For the global warming pathways, the same system borders as for CO2 is relevant, i.e. 100 years.
Notes:

Existing Characterisation Factors of Propylene impact on YOLL
Characterisation Parameter Category Indicator Impact Indication Principle Aspect Substance Quantity Unit Notes
CFactor YOLL EPS/2000
Type = Emission
Direction = Output
Media = Air
Geography = *
Propylene 1.90E-05 p yr/kg 3 pathways