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Characterisation Method Information
Characterisation Method Name:
Benzene impact on morbidity
Date Completed:
Principal Method Name:
EPS: Global warming pathway
Method Description:

The characterisation factor is determined by an equivalency method using CO2 as a reference.

Equivalency factor

The GWP100 was estimated by IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) to 11 in one of the early reports. (1990). Later this
statement was withdrawn by IPCC, with the motivation that the uncertainty was too
large. In the EPS context however, omitting it would create a larger error than including
it, so the equivalency factor 11 will still be used.

Calculation of characterisation factor

As the characterisation factor of CO2 for morbidity is 6.55E07 person-years/kg CO2
we obtain the pathway specific characterisation factor of benzene for severe
morbidity to 11*6.55E07 = 7.21E06 person-years/kg benzene.
Literature Reference:
Steen B (1999b): A systematic approach to environmental priority strategies in product development (EPS). Version 2000 Models and data of the default method CPM report Chalmers University of Technology Sweden
Methodological Range:
The residence time of benzene is in the order of days to weeks. As the regional background concentration of benzene in a rural area is low compared to the one measured in an urban area, the main contribution to the population dose occurs in urban areas close to the sources and within hours of release. The main source of benzene is cars and the gasoline fuel system. Gasoline contains several percent of benzene. This means that emissions occur worldwide and mostly at ground level. The environmental system is therefore global with a focus on urban areas. The temporal system border is the year 1990 for oxidant effects and for the cancer pathway and 100 years for the global warming pathway. The cancer pathway has a longer time scale, maybe in the order of 20 years, but the model is assuming linearity, why it does not make any difference for the model if an instant dose-response is assumed.

Existing Characterisation Factors of Benzene impact on morbidity
Characterisation Parameter Category Indicator Impact Indication Principle Aspect Substance Quantity Unit Notes
CFactor Morbidity EPS/2000
Type = Emission
Direction = Output
Media = Air
Geography = *
Benzene 7.21E-06 p yr/kg Global warming