|Characterisation Method Name:|
|Cr air emissions impact on YOLL|
|Principal Method Name:|
|EPS: cancer pathway|
|YOLL stands for Year of Lost Life.|
The characterisation factor is determined by the empirical method.
Category indicator value in system considered
The cancer risk has been estimated by EPA to be in the order of 1.2 E-02 /mg/m3 expressed as a lifetime unit risk. The mean population exposure for Cr in Sweden was estimated by Steen to 3 ng/m 3 .(Steen, 1991) The hexavalent part of this is not known in
Sweden but was estimated by Scott et al (1997) in New Jersey at an average to 26% which would give a mean concentration on 0.78 ng/m3.
The mortality for all sorts of cancer in the European union was 62 % 1990. (Berrino et.al.
1999). The global average 1990 may be calculated to 64% using statistics from IARC(International Association for Research on Cancer).(Parkin et al., 1990, Pisani et al.,1990). The average reduction of life expectancy was estimated in "Benzene impact on YOLL" to 24 years. The Swedish average life expectancy is 78 years. The mean population exposure was estimated to 0.78 ng/m3 in Sweden (Boström, 1994). This will give 0.62*1.2E-02 *0.78·E-03 *8.6·E+06 /78*24 = 15.4 YOLL among the 8.6 million inhabitants.
Contribution to category indicator value from a flow unit
The total anthropogenic emissions of Cr was estimated to 75 tons/year in Sweden
(Swedish EPA, 1992 ). If Sweden is considered as a closed system, (which is a simplification as there is an import of Cr occurs from long range transport of air
pollutants) the contribution to the exposure is 1.33E-05 . As the Cr emitted in Sweden mainly are transported to less populated areas than the average Sweden, this simplification will result in a slight overestimation of the characterisation factor.
Calculation of characterisation factor
The impact value from an emission of Cr causing increased mortality in cancer is: 15.4*1.33E-05 = 2.05E-04 YOLL/kg Cr.
|1. Steen, B., (1991) “Sveriges befolknings exponering för kväveoxider och mutagena ämnen i luft (Exposure of the Swedish Population to Nitrogen Oxides and mutagens in air)”, Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Report B 1033, September 1991. (In Swedish) 2. Scott, P.K., Finley, B.L., Harris, M.A. and Rabbe, D.R., (1997) "Background Air Concentrations of Cr(VI) in Hudson County, New Yersey: Implications for setting Health based Standards for Cr(VI) in Soil", J. Air & Waste Manage. Assoc., Vol 47, p.592-600. 3. Berrino, F., Capocaccia, R., Esteve, J., Gatta, G., Micheli, A., Sant, M., & Verdecchia, A. (1999) Survival of Cancer Patients in Europe in the late eighties: The EUROCARE II Study (IARC Scientific Publication No. 151) International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon. In press 4. Pisani, P., Parkin, D.M. and Ferlay, J., “Estimates of the worldwide incidence from 25 major cancers in 1990”. International Journal of Cancer. (In Press) 4. Boström, C-E., Almén, J., Steen, B. and Westerholm, R., “Human Exposure to Air Pollution” Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol 102, Suppplement 4, October 1994, p.39-47.|
|The residence time in air for particles is in the order of days to weeks depending on particle size, precipitation, and concentration of other particles and condensable gases. In terms of contribution to population exposure urban populations are receiving the highest doses and mainly from their local sources. The background levels are low compared to urban levels, which means that the trans-boundary pollution may be neglected. Considering an incubation time of the order of 20 years, and that most of the data available are from 1985 the system is defined as Sweden at the state of 1985 during 20 years. As the effects are regarded to be linear, only the year 1985 is studied and assumed to be representative for the 20-year period.|
|Characterisation Parameter||Category Indicator||Impact Indication Principle||Aspect||Substance||Quantity||Unit||Notes|
|Cr||2.05E-04||p yr/kg||Cancer pathway|