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Impact Indication Principle
Name:
EDIP
Version:
1997
Definition:
Introduction

A significant task for the designer is
to create solutions and then to choose among alternatives. In many cases
such choices imply trade-off situations, where improvements to some of
the product's characteristics have to be balanced against worsening in
others. In many cases this will also be the situation for the product's
environmental characteristics: one alternative may have a lower energy
consumption, but then lead to a greater emission of toxic substances
than other alternatives.

One of the designer's tasks is to be aware
of the situations implying trade-offs, and one of the environmental
specialist's tasks is to be able to support the product developer with
environmental assessments for choices in such situations.

The considerations to which the designer must pay attention are generally determined by the interests taken in the product and its life cycle. This also
applies to environmental considerations. The circle of stakeholders is
wide, covering everybody from the production employee through the user of
the product and the person responsible for disposal to the authorities,
lenders and interest organizations. An analysis of the attitudes and
requirements of the various interested parties quickly shows that the
considerations, including the environmental assessment criteria, must
cover a broad field. This ensures that the relevant aspects of the
trade-off situations are covered by the assessment criteria and are thus
transparent in the environmental assessment.

The requirement that the
environmental assessment be broadly based is met by the EDIP method, which
includes the following general categories of impacts:

Environmental impacts
Resource consumption
Impact on the working environment

These three main categories are basically viewed as being equally
important. They are handled as three different aspects, entering into each
separate assessment and are not mutually weighted.

The impacts within these main categories are further divided in terms of their geographic extent into:

Global impacts
Regional impacts
Local impacts

This subdivision is of significance for the final part of the assessment, where
the contributions to the various impact categories are normalized and
weighted, because the character and the mode of action differ for
different geographical extents.

Consumption of non-renewable resources is
a global impact. Environmental impacts can be global, regional and
local, while consumption of renewable resources and impacts on the working
environment are local, or in some cases regional.

Environmental impacts

Environmental impacts include impacts on the external environment, including human health. In the definition of what constitutes an environmental impact, it is possible to focus on impacts which lie early or late in the chain of causes and effects for various impacts on the
environment.

The impacts and consequences which arise late in a cause-effect chain are often the reason why the impact is viewed as a
problem, and thus defined as being able to cause an environmental effect
which has to be dealt with. But while the relevance of the impacts for the
community is typically increased with progression through the chain,
the cause-effect relationships also become more complex. The more causal
relationships involved between the substance's first impact on the
environment and the effect under investigation, the greater is the
uncertainty in the quantitative relationship between the magnitude of the
emission and the extent of the effect. As noted earlier, real effects cannot
be predicted in a life cycle assessment because of the lack of
information on exposure of the sensitive parts of lowest parts of the
environment.

A further consideration is the large degree of merging between the lowest parts of the cause-effect chains for different types of environmental impacts. Ultimately, almost all impacts can cause loss of habitats, loss of species and loss of economic and cultural
values.

Because it is not possible to predict actual effects and consequence
of the environmental exchanges in the product's life cycle and in order
to gain an unambiguous assessment of impact on the external
environment, the EDIP method defines the categories of environmental impact on the
basis of impacts which lie at an early stage in the cause-effect
chains.

Simultaneous contributions to several environmental impacts

Some substances can contribute to more than one environmental impact. An
example is oxides of nitrogen (NOx), which contribute to acidification,
nutrient enrichment, photochemical ozone formation and toxicity to
humans via the atmosphere.

As a rule, these substances should be
regarded as contributing to all of the environmental impacts involved, because
a contribution to one impact does not exclude a contribution to the
others. This is, for example, the case for the contribution made by
nitrogen oxides to acidification and nutrient enrichment. The same molecule
of N0x can contribute to acidification and at the same time to nutrient enrichment

For some environmental impacts, a contribution to one of
the impacts can, however, exclude a contribution to the other. If, for
example, a molecule of Nox is inhaled by a person and thereby contributes to toxicity to humans, the molecule is removed from the atmosphere
and it can therefore not simultaneously contribute to acidification or
nutrient enrichment. Conversely, if the molecule of NO, exerts an
acidifying and nutrient enrichment impact in e.g. a forest, it can no longer
be toxic to humans. The contributions to toxicity and acidification,
or toxicity and nutrient enrichment, are therefore mutually exclusive in
principle. Simultaneous contributions from nitrogen oxides to all of
the above environmental impacts are nevertheless assumed, because a
negligible quantity is inhaled by humans. In practice, inhalation of
nitrogen oxides therefore does not reduce the potential for acidification, and
the error made is therefore entirely insignificant.

Non-chemical environmental impacts

The product's life cycle can also cause
exchanges which at a local level have a physical impact on the environment.
This type of impact has not been relevant to environmental assessments
under the EDIP programme and they have therefore not been implemented in
the EDIP method. For certain types of products, e.g. agricultural
products, it can be relevant to include impacts of physical burdens as
assessment criteria in the LCA. Inclusion of the physical influences is
recommended if they are judged to be relevant for the product, if not
otherwise then in the form of a qualitative assessment.

Resource consumption ôResources" are taken to mean the primary raw materials from
which the materials in the product system derive: those involving
energy, the construction materials and the ancillary substances. Resource
consumption includes consumption of both renewable and non-renewable
resources.

Renewable resources are defined as resources which can be
regenerated and which will therefore not necessarily be exhausted because
human exploitation. Examples of renewable resources are plant biomass
such as wood, straw and grain, or water resources such as groundwater
surface water or dammed water for use in hydroelectric power plant

The EDIP method includes renewable resources in the inventory on an equal
footing with non-renewable resources, even if their consumption does not
exceed regeneration for the resource in question.

Renewable and non-renewable resources can be substituted for each other in many cases, and it can be difficult to predict such future substitutions at the time
of product development, for example for fuels. For energy consumption,
for example, the task of the product developer is to minimize
consumption, while the task of the community in the future is to find the best possible solutions for the energy systems. When the LCA is used in
connection with product development, renewable resources should therefore be
included so that they can enter into the total optimisation.

Non-renewable resources are resources which are not regenerated, or which are
regenerated so slowly that the rate of regeneration is without
practical significance for their available quantity. Fossil resources such as
oil, coal and gas and all metals are examples of non-renewable
resources.

Impact on the working environment

The working environment is affected by all the influences to which a human being is exposed in his or her work. These influences can be of both positive and negative significance for personal safety and health. Influences with negative
significance for safety and health are called impacts on the working
environment. Impacts on the working environment are an entirely local
phenomenon, and they are often an integral part of the processes occurring in
the product's life cycle. The person in the working environment is
exposed to influences of a physical, chemical, biological or psychosocial
nature which can lead to nuisance or damage to health. In practice it is
not possible to include all types of influences in an LCA. The spectrum
is simply too large, and many of the influences cannot be related to
individual processes or products, but depend on the way in which the
production is organized.

The type of impacts on working environment in EDIP were selected partly because they are the most frequently occurring
in Denmark and partly because it is possible to make an inventory of
them in a manner which relates them to the processes which cause them.

International consensus

It is common to include environmental
impacts and resource consumption as assessment criteria in the environmental
assessment of products. In life cycle assessments carried out in
countries outside Scandinavia, it is, on the other hand, rare that the
working environment is included as an assessment criterion.

In assessment of the potential for environmental impact from the product's life cycle, it is common practice to base the assessment on the potential
contribution of the emissions to various environmental impacts. In SETAC (Society
of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry) and among researchers
within life cycle analysis there is general agreement on how contributions
to the global environmental impact are to be handled, but there is
continuing (1997) discussion of how potential contributions to the
non-global types of effects can best be presented. There is also still some
divergence in the selection of types of impacts, especially for emissions
which contribute to eco-toxicity and toxicity to humans and for physical
environmental impact.

In assessment of resource consumption, focus is generally placed on the non-renewable resources, and if renewable
resources are included at all as assessment criteria, it is only in those
situations where they are used in a non-sustainable manner, i.e. where
the rate of consumption exceeds regeneration of the resource.

The EDIP method is in agreement with international practice on which
assessment criteria are selected, except for the inclusion of impact on the
working environment and use of renewable resources. In certain areas it
has been necessary to clarify the definition of assessment criteria, and
above all it has been necessary to develop operational methods of
assessment and a database for the assessment for a large number of
them.
DateCompleted:
1997
MethodologicalRange:
Geographical range is Denmark and Europe
Notes:
Henrik Wenzel, Michael Hauschild and Leo Alting (1997 ):
Environmental assessment of products Vol. 1 Methodology, tools and case
studies in product development London Chapman & Hall

Michael Hauschild and Henrik Wenzel (1998): Environmental assessment of products Vol.
2 Scientific background London Chapman & Hall


Category Indicators
Name:
Aluminium consumption
Description:
Inventory

Consumption of materials, ancillary substances and fuel are expressed in the inventory as primary intake of resources directly from nature, i.e, minerals, water, biomass etc. Resources are expressed as pure substances and not as ore.

Definition of reserve

The magnitude of the reserve is that fraction of the resource which can presently be exploited economically. Both known and estimated reserves of known occurrence are included.

Changes in geological information, technology, the price of extraction and production and the price of the raw material can affect the estimate of the reserves. Reserves beyond the capabilities of current production facilities may well exist (World Resources, 1990, 1992; BP, 1992).

Resource indicators are expressed as:

WR(j) = RC(i) / RES(PE),

Where

WR(j) is the product's normalized consumption of resource (j) expressed as the fraction of the known reserve per person in 1990

RC(j) is the consumption of resource (j) per product, i.e., the total consumption in the product system for the life of function unit.

RES(PE), is known reserves per person
Default Unit:
per/kg
Notes:
Aluminium consumption



Name:
Antimony consumption
Description:
Inventory

Consumption of materials, ancillary substances and fuel are expressed in the inventory as primary intake of resources directly from nature, i.e, minerals, water, biomass etc. Resources are expressed as pure substances and not as ore.

Definition of reserve

The magnitude of the reserve is that fraction of the resource which can presently be exploited economically. Both known and estimated reserves of known occurrence are included.

Changes in geological information, technology, the price of extraction and production and the price of the raw material can affect the estimate of the reserves. Reserves beyond the capabilities of current production facilities may well exist (World Resources, 1990, 1992; BP, 1992).

Resource indicators are expressed as:

WR(j) = RC(i) / RES(PE),

Where

WR(j) is the product's normalized consumption of resource (j) expressed as the fraction of the known reserve per person in 1990

RC(j) is the consumption of resource (j) per product, i.e., the total consumption in the product system for the life of function unit.

RES(PE), is known reserves per person
Default Unit:
per/kg
Notes:
Antimony consumption



Name:
Beryllium consumption
Description:
Inventory

Consumption of materials, ancillary substances and fuel are expressed in the inventory as primary intake of resources directly from nature, i.e, minerals, water, biomass etc. Resources are expressed as pure substances and not as ore.

Definition of reserve

The magnitude of the reserve is that fraction of the resource which can presently be exploited economically. Both known and estimated reserves of known occurrence are included.

Changes in geological information, technology, the price of extraction and production and the price of the raw material can affect the estimate of the reserves. Reserves beyond the capabilities of current production facilities may well exist (World Resources, 1990, 1992; BP, 1992).

Resource indicators are expressed as:

WR(j) = RC(i) / RES(PE),

Where

WR(j) is the product's normalized consumption of resource (j) expressed as the fraction of the known reserve per person in 1990

RC(j) is the consumption of resource (j) per product, i.e., the total consumption in the product system for the life of function unit.

RES(PE), is known reserves per person
Default Unit:
per/kg
Notes:
Beryllium consumption



Name:
Brown coal consumption
Description:
Inventory

Consumption of materials, ancillary substances and fuel are expressed in the inventory as primary intake of resources directly from nature, i.e, minerals, water, biomass etc. Resources are expressed as pure substances and not as ore.

Definition of reserve

The magnitude of the reserve is that fraction of the resource which can presently be exploited economically. Both known and estimated reserves of known occurrence are included.

Changes in geological information, technology, the price of extraction and production and the price of the raw material can affect the estimate of the reserves. Reserves beyond the capabilities of current production facilities may well exist (World Resources, 1990, 1992; BP, 1992).

Resource indicators are expressed as:

WR(j) = RC(i) / RES(PE),

Where

WR(j) is the product's normalized consumption of resource (j) expressed as the fraction of the known reserve per person in 1990

RC(j) is the consumption of resource (j) per product, i.e., the total consumption in the product system for the life of function unit.

RES(PE), is known reserves per person
Default Unit:
per/kg
Notes:
Brown coal



Name:
Cadmium consumption
Description:
Inventory

Consumption of materials, ancillary substances and fuel are expressed in the inventory as primary intake of resources directly from nature, i.e, minerals, water, biomass etc. Resources are expressed as pure substances and not as ore.

Definition of reserve

The magnitude of the reserve is that fraction of the resource which can presently be exploited economically. Both known and estimated reserves of known occurrence are included.

Changes in geological information, technology, the price of extraction and production and the price of the raw material can affect the estimate of the reserves. Reserves beyond the capabilities of current production facilities may well exist (World Resources, 1990, 1992; BP, 1992).

Resource indicators are expressed as:

WR(j) = RC(i) / RES(PE),

Where

WR(j) is the product's normalized consumption of resource (j) expressed as the fraction of the known reserve per person in 1990

RC(j) is the consumption of resource (j) per product, i.e., the total consumption in the product system for the life of function unit.

RES(PE), is known reserves per person
Default Unit:
per/kg
Notes:
Cadmium consumption



Name:
Cerium consumption
Description:
Inventory

Consumption of materials, ancillary substances and fuel are expressed in the inventory as primary intake of resources directly from nature, i.e, minerals, water, biomass etc. Resources are expressed as pure substances and not as ore.

Definition of reserve

The magnitude of the reserve is that fraction of the resource which can presently be exploited economically. Both known and estimated reserves of known occurrence are included.

Changes in geological information, technology, the price of extraction and production and the price of the raw material can affect the estimate of the reserves. Reserves beyond the capabilities of current production facilities may well exist (World Resources, 1990, 1992; BP, 1992).

Resource indicators are expressed as:

WR(j) = RC(i) / RES(PE),

Where

WR(j) is the product's normalized consumption of resource (j) expressed as the fraction of the known reserve per person in 1990

RC(j) is the consumption of resource (j) per product, i.e., the total consumption in the product system for the life of function unit.

RES(PE), is known reserves per person
Default Unit:
per/kg
Notes:
Cerium consumption



Name:
Coal consumption
Description:
Inventory

Consumption of materials, ancillary substances and fuel are expressed in the inventory as primary intake of resources directly from nature, i.e, minerals, water, biomass etc. Resources are expressed as pure substances and not as ore.

Definition of reserve

The magnitude of the reserve is that fraction of the resource which can presently be exploited economically. Both known and estimated reserves of known occurrence are included.

Changes in geological information, technology, the price of extraction and production and the price of the raw material can affect the estimate of the reserves. Reserves beyond the capabilities of current production facilities may well exist (World Resources, 1990, 1992; BP, 1992).

Resource indicators are expressed as:

WR(j) = RC(i) / RES(PE),

Where

WR(j) is the product's normalized consumption of resource (j) expressed as the fraction of the known reserve per person in 1990

RC(j) is the consumption of resource (j) per product, i.e., the total consumption in the product system for the life of function unit.

RES(PE), is known reserves per person
Default Unit:
per/kg
Notes:
Coal consumption



Name:
Cobalt consumption
Description:
Inventory

Consumption of materials, ancillary substances and fuel are expressed in the inventory as primary intake of resources directly from nature, i.e, minerals, water, biomass etc. Resources are expressed as pure substances and not as ore.

Definition of reserve

The magnitude of the reserve is that fraction of the resource which can presently be exploited economically. Both known and estimated reserves of known occurrence are included.

Changes in geological information, technology, the price of extraction and production and the price of the raw material can affect the estimate of the reserves. Reserves beyond the capabilities of current production facilities may well exist (World Resources, 1990, 1992; BP, 1992).

Resource indicators are expressed as:

WR(j) = RC(i) / RES(PE),

Where

WR(j) is the product's normalized consumption of resource (j) expressed as the fraction of the known reserve per person in 1990

RC(j) is the consumption of resource (j) per product, i.e., the total consumption in the product system for the life of function unit.

RES(PE), is known reserves per person
Default Unit:
per/kg
Notes:
Cobalt consumption



Name:
Copper consumption
Description:
Inventory

Consumption of materials, ancillary substances and fuel are expressed in the inventory as primary intake of resources directly from nature, i.e, minerals, water, biomass etc. Resources are expressed as pure substances and not as ore.

Definition of reserve

The magnitude of the reserve is that fraction of the resource which can presently be exploited economically. Both known and estimated reserves of known occurrence are included.

Changes in geological information, technology, the price of extraction and production and the price of the raw material can affect the estimate of the reserves. Reserves beyond the capabilities of current production facilities may well exist (World Resources, 1990, 1992; BP, 1992).

Resource indicators are expressed as:

WR(j) = RC(i) / RES(PE),

Where

WR(j) is the product's normalized consumption of resource (j) expressed as the fraction of the known reserve per person in 1990

RC(j) is the consumption of resource (j) per product, i.e., the total consumption in the product system for the life of function unit.

RES(PE), is known reserves per person
Default Unit:
per/kg
Notes:
Copper consumption



Name:
EF(ac)
Description:
EF(ac): equivalency factors for
acidifying substances

There is no internationally accepted system of equivalency factors for acidifying substances. In contrast to the global environmental impacts
and photochemical ozone formation, it has therefore been necessary in the EDIP programme to develop equivalency factors for acidification.


Calculation of the equivalency factor for a substance is based on the number of hydrogen ions
which can theoretically be released from the substance directly or after any conversions in the environment.
Default Unit:
g SO2-eq/g substance
Notes:
EF(ac): equivalency factors for
acidifying substances



Name:
EF(etp)
Description:
EF(etp) is equivalence factor for ecotoxicity to microorganisms in sewage treatment plants.

As for nutrient enrichment and acidification, there is no internationally accepted set of equivalency factors expressing substances' potential toxicity in the environment in a way which can be used in the calculation of
potentials for ecotoxicity. There are various proposals for how ecotoxicity can be handled in the LCA, but in the authors' view, their scientific foundation is too weak, or their demands on data are too high to make
them operational and usable in practice. It has therefore been necessary in the EDIP program to develop a method for calculation of the ecotoxicity potentials of emissions. The EDIP method is inspired by the EU Commission's technical guidelines for risk assessment of chemicals in the
environment . It has been presented several times at conferences and workshops in SETAC (Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry) and has entered into the methodological discussions in SETAC.

EP(et) is the ecotoxicity potential in one of the environmental compartments, water, soil and sewage treatment plant, determined as the product
of the quantity of substance Q emitted and the equivalency factor EF for the emission regarding the compartment in question. The ecotoxicity
potential is measured in cubic metres (m3) of the compartment. It corresponds to the volume of the compartment to which the emission should be diluted in order to obtain a concentration of substance so low that no ecotoxic effects would be expected from the emission.
Default Unit:
m3/g
Notes:
EF(etp): equivalence factor for ecotoxicity to microorganisms in sewage treatment plants



Name:
EF(etsc)
Description:
EF(etsc) is equivalence factor for chronic ecotoxicity in soil.

As for nutrient enrichment and acidification, there is no internationally accepted set of equivalency factors expressing substances' potential toxicity in the environment in a way which can be used in the calculation of
potentials for ecotoxicity. There are various proposals for how ecotoxicity can be handled in the LCA, but in the authors' view, their scientific foundation is too weak, or their demands on data are too high to make
them operational and usable in practice. It has therefore been necessary in the EDIP program to develop a method for calculation of the ecotoxicity potentials of emissions. The EDIP method is inspired by the EU Commission's technical guidelines for risk assessment of chemicals in the
environment . It has been presented several times at conferences and workshops in SETAC (Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry) and has entered into the methodological discussions in SETAC.

EP(et) is the ecotoxicity potential in one of the environmental compartments, water, soil and sewage treatment plant, determined as the product
of the quantity of substance Q emitted and the equivalency factor EF for the emission regarding the compartment in question. The ecotoxicity
potential is measured in cubic metres (m3) of the compartment. It corresponds to the volume of the compartment to which the emission should be diluted in order to obtain a concentration of substance so low that no ecotoxic effects would be expected from the emission.
Default Unit:
M3/g
Notes:
EF(etsc): equivalence factor for chronic ecotoxicity in soil



Name:
EF(etwa)
Description:
EF(etwa) is equivalence factor for acute ecotoxicity in water.

As for nutrient enrichment and acidification, there is no internationally accepted set of equivalency factors expressing substances' potential toxicity in the environment in a way which can be used in the calculation of
potentials for ecotoxicity. There are various proposals for how ecotoxicity can be handled in the LCA, but in the authors' view, their scientific foundation is too weak, or their demands on data are too high to make
them operational and usable in practice. It has therefore been necessary in the EDIP program to develop a method for calculation of the ecotoxicity potentials of emissions. The EDIP method is inspired by the EU Commission's technical guidelines for risk assessment of chemicals in the
environment . It has been presented several times at conferences and workshops in SETAC (Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry) and has entered into the methodological discussions in SETAC.

EP(et) is the ecotoxicity potential in one of the environmental compartments, water, soil and sewage treatment plant, determined as the product
of the quantity of substance Q emitted and the equivalency factor EF for the emission regarding the compartment in question. The ecotoxicity
potential is measured in cubic metres (m3) of the compartment. It corresponds to the volume of the compartment to which the emission should be diluted in order to obtain a concentration of substance so low that no ecotoxic effects would be expected from the emission.
Default Unit:
m3/g
Notes:
EF(etwa): equivalence factor for acute ecotoxicity in water



Name:
EF(etwc)
Description:
EF(etwc) is equivalence factor for chronic ecotoxicity in water.

As for nutrient enrichment and acidification, there is no internationally accepted set of equivalency factors expressing substances' potential toxicity in the environment in a way which can be used in the calculation of
potentials for ecotoxicity. There are various proposals for how ecotoxicity can be handled in the LCA, but in the authors' view, their scientific foundation is too weak, or their demands on data are too high to make
them operational and usable in practice. It has therefore been necessary in the EDIP program to develop a method for calculation of the ecotoxicity potentials of emissions. The EDIP method is inspired by the EU Commission's technical guidelines for risk assessment of chemicals in the
environment . It has been presented several times at conferences and workshops in SETAC (Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry) and has entered into the methodological discussions in SETAC.

EP(et) is the ecotoxicity potential in one of the environmental compartments, water, soil and sewage treatment plant, determined as the product
of the quantity of substance Q emitted and the equivalency factor EF for the emission regarding the compartment in question. The ecotoxicity
potential is measured in cubic metres (m3) of the compartment. It corresponds to the volume of the compartment to which the emission should be diluted in order to obtain a concentration of substance so low that no ecotoxic effects would be expected from the emission.
Default Unit:
M3/g
Notes:
EF(etwc):equivalence factor for chronic ecotoxicity in water



Name:
EF(hta)
Description:
EF(hta) is toxicity potential to humans via air.

As for ecotoxicity, it has been necessary in the EDIP method to develop a way by which toxicity potentials can be calculated for exposure of humans in the environment.

The EDIP method of calculation of human toxicity potentials was also
inspired by the EU Commission's technical guidelines for risk assessment of chemicals in the environment (European Commission, 1996).


EP(ht) is the toxicity potential for humans by exposure to the substance via one of the four compartments air, water, soil or groundwater. The toxicity potential is determined as the product of the quantity of soil
stance Q emitted and the substance's equivalency factor EF for exposure through the compartment in question.

The toxicity potential is expressed in m3 of the compartment and corresponds to the volume of the compartment into which the emission
should be diluted for its concentration to be so low that no toxicologic effects could be expected from the emission.
Default Unit:
m3/g
Notes:
EF(hta):toxicity potential to humans via air



Name:
EF(hts)
Description:
EF(hts) is toxicity potential to humans via soil.

As for ecotoxicity, it has been necessary in the EDIP method to develop a way by which toxicity potentials can be calculated for exposure of humans in the environment.

The EDIP method of calculation of human toxicity potentials was also
inspired by the EU Commission's technical guidelines for risk assessment of chemicals in the environment (European Commission, 1996).


EP(ht) is the toxicity potential for humans by exposure to the substance via one of the four compartments air, water, soil or groundwater. The toxicity potential is determined as the product of the quantity of soil
stance Q emitted and the substance's equivalency factor EF for exposure through the compartment in question.

The toxicity potential is expressed in m3 of the compartment and corresponds to the volume of the compartment into which the emission
should be diluted for its concentration to be so low that no toxicologic effects could be expected from the emission.
Default Unit:
m3/g
Notes:
EF(hts): toxicity potential to humans via soil



Name:
EF(htw)
Description:
EF(htw) is toxicity potential to humans via water.

As for ecotoxicity, it has been necessary in the EDIP method to develop a way by which toxicity potentials can be calculated for exposure of humans in the environment.

The EDIP method of calculation of human toxicity potentials was also
inspired by the EU Commission's technical guidelines for risk assessment of chemicals in the environment (European Commission, 1996).


EP(ht) is the toxicity potential for humans by exposure to the substance via one of the four compartments air, water, soil or groundwater. The toxicity potential is determined as the product of the quantity of soil
stance Q emitted and the substance's equivalency factor EF for exposure through the compartment in question.

The toxicity potential is expressed in m3 of the compartment and corresponds to the volume of the compartment into which the emission
should be diluted for its concentration to be so low that no toxicologic effects could be expected from the emission.
Default Unit:
m3/g
Notes:
EF(htw): toxicity potential to humans via water



Name:
EF(N)
Description:
EF(N): equivalency factors for N-nutrients enrichment

There is no internationally accepted system of equivalency factors for nutrient enrichment which can be used in calculation of its potential. As the environmental impact as here defined is attributed to addition of N- or P-containing nutrients, it is, however, easy to develop a system of equivalency factors, as the equivalency factor must simply show the compound's content of Nor P.

It is possible to operate with two potentials for nutrient enrichment, one for each of the two nutrients N and P. It will be an advantage to treat N and P separately if an assessment is subsequently to be made of
whether the contributions to nutrient enrichment are to be accorded major or little weight on the basis of site-specific considerations. The weight accorded nutrient enrichment depends on whether the nutrient
which is added is the limiting one in the ecosystem in question. This can only be decided if the contributions from compounds containing N and P are treated separately in the calculation of their potentials.

Default Unit:
g N/g substance
Notes:
EF(N): equivalency factors for N-nutrients enrichment



Name:
EF(ne)
Description:
EF(ne):potential for nutrient enrichment

It is also possible for the sake of simplicity to operate with only one potential for nutrient enrichment. The two nutrient enrichment potentials must then be combined, which requires an assumption of a fixed relative
strength of the contributions from N and P which must be independent of the type and sensitivity of the ecosystem which is exposed. As there
are on average about 16 times as many nitrogen atoms as phosphorus
atoms in aquatic organisms, a strength of 16 is used for P relative to N when their impact potentials are aggregated into one. As for several of the other
potential environmental impacts, the potentials for nutrient enrichment are expressed as an equivalent quantity of a reference substance. If the
two nutrients are treated separately, the reference substances are simply nitrogen and phosphorus. If they are combined in one impact potential,
the latter is expressed as an equivalent quantity of nitrate, NO3-.
As noted, all substances containing N or P are potential contributors to nutrient loads. Compounds other than those for which equivalency factors are given here may therefore occur in the inventory. If this is the
case, it is easy to calculate equivalency factors for them. The method is given in Hauschild & Wenzel (1997).
Default Unit:
g NO3/g substance
Notes:
EF(ne):potential for nutrient enrichment

Hauschild & Wenzel (1997) Nutrient enrichment as assessment criterion in the environmental assessment of products, in : Scientific background for environmental assessment of products Chapman & Hall, London




Name:
EF(P)
Description:
EF(p): equivalency factors for P-nutrient enrichment

There is no internationally accepted system of equivalency factors for nutrient enrichment which can be used in calculation of its potential. As the environmental impact as here defined is attributed to addition of N- or P-containing nutrients, it is, however, easy to develop a system of
equivalency factors, as the equivalency factor must simply show the compound's content of Nor P.

It is possible to operate with two potentials for nutrient enrichment, one for each of the two nutrients N and P. It will be an advantage to treat N and P separately if an assessment is subsequently to be made of
whether the contributions to nutrient enrichment are to be accorded major or little weight on the basis of site-specific considerations. The weight accorded nutrient enrichment depends on whether the nutrient
which is added is the limiting one in the ecosystem in question. This can only be decided if the contributions from compounds containing N and P are treated separately in the calculation of their potentials.


Default Unit:
g P/g substance
Notes:
EF(p): equivalency factors for P-nutrient enrichment



Name:
EF(po)
Description:
EF(PO): potential contribution to photochemical ozone formation

UNECE, the United Nations Economic Council for Europe, has established a committee to investigate transnational air pollution. For use in
mapping the most significant sources of the rising ozone concentration ; the troposphere and the increasingly more frequent episodes of photochemical smog, this committee applies factors which, for each individual compound, express the potential contribution to photochemical ozone formation. These factors are called Photochemical Ozone Creation Potentials (POCPs). In the same way as the GWP values for global warming and the ODP values for stratospheric ozone depletion, the POCP values express the ozone formation potential as an equivalent emission of a chosen reference substance. For photochemical ozone formation the reference substance is the gas ethylene (C2H2).

EF(po)=Contributions to ozone formation from gas(i)/contribution to ozone formation from C2H2

There is no international panel of experts for the environmental impact of photochemical ozone formation such as there is for global environmental impacts. Agreement among participating countries in the UNECE on using the POCP factor system is therefore the closest
approximation to international recognition of any equivalency factor system for photochemical ozone formation.
Default Unit:
g C2H4/g substance
Notes:
EF(PO): potential contribution to photochemical ozone formation



Name:
Gold consumption
Description:
Inventory

Consumption of materials, ancillary substances and fuel are expressed in the inventory as primary intake of resources directly from nature, i.e, minerals, water, biomass etc. Resources are expressed as pure substances and not as ore.

Definition of reserve

The magnitude of the reserve is that fraction of the resource which can presently be exploited economically. Both known and estimated reserves of known occurrence are included.

Changes in geological information, technology, the price of extraction and production and the price of the raw material can affect the estimate of the reserves. Reserves beyond the capabilities of current production facilities may well exist (World Resources, 1990, 1992; BP, 1992).

Resource indicators are expressed as:

WR(j) = RC(i) / RES(PE),

Where

WR(j) is the product's normalized consumption of resource (j) expressed as the fraction of the known reserve per person in 1990

RC(j) is the consumption of resource (j) per product, i.e., the total consumption in the product system for the life of function unit.

RES(PE), is known reserves per person
Default Unit:
per/kg
Notes:
Gold consumption



Name:
GWP
Description:
GWP: Global Warming Potential


GWPi=Contribution to global warming from gas(i) over T years/Contribution from CO2 to global warming over Tyears

The IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) does not include indirect contributions from gases other than methane. The EDIP method nevertheless offers the option of including that part of the indirect contribution from volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbon monoxide (CO) attributable to their predictable conversion to 002. This applies only if the gases originate from fossil.


Default Unit:
g CO2/g substance
Notes:
GWP: Global Warming Potential



Name:
Iron consumption
Description:
Inventory

Consumption of materials, ancillary substances and fuel are expressed in the inventory as primary intake of resources directly from nature, i.e, minerals, water, biomass etc. Resources are expressed as pure substances and not as ore.

Definition of reserve

The magnitude of the reserve is that fraction of the resource which can presently be exploited economically. Both known and estimated reserves of known occurrence are included.

Changes in geological information, technology, the price of extraction and production and the price of the raw material can affect the estimate of the reserves. Reserves beyond the capabilities of current production facilities may well exist (World Resources, 1990, 1992; BP, 1992).

Resource indicators are expressed as:

WR(j) = RC(i) / RES(PE),

Where

WR(j) is the product's normalized consumption of resource (j) expressed as the fraction of the known reserve per person in 1990

RC(j) is the consumption of resource (j) per product, i.e., the total consumption in the product system for the life of function unit.

RES(PE), is known reserves per person
Default Unit:
per/kg
Notes:
Iron consumption



Name:
Lanthanum consumption
Description:
Inventory

Consumption of materials, ancillary substances and fuel are expressed in the inventory as primary intake of resources directly from nature, i.e, minerals, water, biomass etc. Resources are expressed as pure substances and not as ore.

Definition of reserve

The magnitude of the reserve is that fraction of the resource which can presently be exploited economically. Both known and estimated reserves of known occurrence are included.

Changes in geological information, technology, the price of extraction and production and the price of the raw material can affect the estimate of the reserves. Reserves beyond the capabilities of current production facilities may well exist (World Resources, 1990, 1992; BP, 1992).

Resource indicators are expressed as:

WR(j) = RC(i) / RES(PE),

Where

WR(j) is the product's normalized consumption of resource (j) expressed as the fraction of the known reserve per person in 1990

RC(j) is the consumption of resource (j) per product, i.e., the total consumption in the product system for the life of function unit.

RES(PE), is known reserves per person
Default Unit:
per/kg
Notes:
Lanthanum consumption



Name:
Lead consumption
Description:
Inventory

Consumption of materials, ancillary substances and fuel are expressed in the inventory as primary intake of resources directly from nature, i.e, minerals, water, biomass etc. Resources are expressed as pure substances and not as ore.

Definition of reserve

The magnitude of the reserve is that fraction of the resource which can presently be exploited economically. Both known and estimated reserves of known occurrence are included.

Changes in geological information, technology, the price of extraction and production and the price of the raw material can affect the estimate of the reserves. Reserves beyond the capabilities of current production facilities may well exist (World Resources, 1990, 1992; BP, 1992).

Resource indicators are expressed as:

WR(j) = RC(i) / RES(PE),

Where

WR(j) is the product's normalized consumption of resource (j) expressed as the fraction of the known reserve per person in 1990

RC(j) is the consumption of resource (j) per product, i.e., the total consumption in the product system for the life of function unit.

RES(PE), is known reserves per person
Default Unit:
per/kg
Notes:
Lead consumption



Name:
Manganese consumption
Description:
Inventory

Consumption of materials, ancillary substances and fuel are expressed in the inventory as primary intake of resources directly from nature, i.e, minerals, water, biomass etc. Resources are expressed as pure substances and not as ore.

Definition of reserve

The magnitude of the reserve is that fraction of the resource which can presently be exploited economically. Both known and estimated reserves of known occurrence are included.

Changes in geological information, technology, the price of extraction and production and the price of the raw material can affect the estimate of the reserves. Reserves beyond the capabilities of current production facilities may well exist (World Resources, 1990, 1992; BP, 1992).

Resource indicators are expressed as:

WR(j) = RC(i) / RES(PE),

Where

WR(j) is the product's normalized consumption of resource (j) expressed as the fraction of the known reserve per person in 1990

RC(j) is the consumption of resource (j) per product, i.e., the total consumption in the product system for the life of function unit.

RES(PE), is known reserves per person
Default Unit:
per/kg
Notes:
Manganese consumption



Name:
Mercury consumption
Description:
Inventory

Consumption of materials, ancillary substances and fuel are expressed in the inventory as primary intake of resources directly from nature, i.e, minerals, water, biomass etc. Resources are expressed as pure substances and not as ore.

Definition of reserve

The magnitude of the reserve is that fraction of the resource which can presently be exploited economically. Both known and estimated reserves of known occurrence are included.

Changes in geological information, technology, the price of extraction and production and the price of the raw material can affect the estimate of the reserves. Reserves beyond the capabilities of current production facilities may well exist (World Resources, 1990, 1992; BP, 1992).

Resource indicators are expressed as:

WR(j) = RC(i) / RES(PE),

Where

WR(j) is the product's normalized consumption of resource (j) expressed as the fraction of the known reserve per person in 1990

RC(j) is the consumption of resource (j) per product, i.e., the total consumption in the product system for the life of function unit.

RES(PE), is known reserves per person
Default Unit:
per/kg
Notes:
Mercury consumption



Name:
Molybdenum consumption
Description:
Inventory

Consumption of materials, ancillary substances and fuel are expressed in the inventory as primary intake of resources directly from nature, i.e, minerals, water, biomass etc. Resources are expressed as pure substances and not as ore.

Definition of reserve

The magnitude of the reserve is that fraction of the resource which can presently be exploited economically. Both known and estimated reserves of known occurrence are included.

Changes in geological information, technology, the price of extraction and production and the price of the raw material can affect the estimate of the reserves. Reserves beyond the capabilities of current production facilities may well exist (World Resources, 1990, 1992; BP, 1992).

Resource indicators are expressed as:

WR(j) = RC(i) / RES(PE),

Where

WR(j) is the product's normalized consumption of resource (j) expressed as the fraction of the known reserve per person in 1990

RC(j) is the consumption of resource (j) per product, i.e., the total consumption in the product system for the life of function unit.

RES(PE), is known reserves per person
Default Unit:
per/kg
Notes:
Molybdenum consumption



Name:
Natural gas consumption
Description:
Inventory

Consumption of materials, ancillary substances and fuel are expressed in the inventory as primary intake of resources directly from nature, i.e, minerals, water, biomass etc. Resources are expressed as pure substances and not as ore.

Definition of reserve

The magnitude of the reserve is that fraction of the resource which can presently be exploited economically. Both known and estimated reserves of known occurrence are included.

Changes in geological information, technology, the price of extraction and production and the price of the raw material can affect the estimate of the reserves. Reserves beyond the capabilities of current production facilities may well exist (World Resources, 1990, 1992; BP, 1992).

Resource indicators are expressed as:

WR(j) = RC(i) / RES(PE),

Where

WR(j) is the product's normalized consumption of resource (j) expressed as the fraction of the known reserve per person in 1990

RC(j) is the consumption of resource (j) per product, i.e., the total consumption in the product system for the life of function unit.

RES(PE), is known reserves per person
Default Unit:
per/kg
Notes:
natural gas



Name:
Nickel consumption
Description:
Inventory

Consumption of materials, ancillary substances and fuel are expressed in the inventory as primary intake of resources directly from nature, i.e, minerals, water, biomass etc. Resources are expressed as pure substances and not as ore.

Definition of reserve

The magnitude of the reserve is that fraction of the resource which can presently be exploited economically. Both known and estimated reserves of known occurrence are included.

Changes in geological information, technology, the price of extraction and production and the price of the raw material can affect the estimate of the reserves. Reserves beyond the capabilities of current production facilities may well exist (World Resources, 1990, 1992; BP, 1992).

Resource indicators are expressed as:

WR(j) = RC(i) / RES(PE),

Where

WR(j) is the product's normalized consumption of resource (j) expressed as the fraction of the known reserve per person in 1990

RC(j) is the consumption of resource (j) per product, i.e., the total consumption in the product system for the life of function unit.

RES(PE), is known reserves per person
Default Unit:
per/kg
Notes:
Nickel consumption



Name:
ODP
Description:
ODP: stratospheric ozone depletion potential

Together with the UN's environment programme UNEP and a number of other organizations, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO)
organizes the "Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project", a research network of experts in atmospheric chemistry. The network reviews international developments in scientific knowledge of stratospheric ozone depletion and every few years issues status reports summarizing the latest findings. The status reports present the Ozone Depletion Potentials (ODPs), which for individual gases express the ozone depletion potential as an equivalent emission of a reference substance CFC11 (CFC13).
These ODP values are used as equivalency factors in the calculation of the ozone depletion potential. The equivalency factor is thus defined as:

EF(od)=ODPi=Contribution to stratospheric ozone depletion from gas(i)/contribution to stratospheric ozone depletion from CFC11

The focus in this definition is on the gas's total contribution to stratospheric ozone depletion throughout its life in the atmosphere. If the plans
for phasing out halocarbons in the Montreal Protocol are followed, the breakdown of ozone in the stratopshere is predicted to peak within the next 10 years, and the problem will then gradually decline. On this basis
the contribution to ozone depletion realized within the next few years can be viewed as more serious than contributions which will only be realized in the distant future. It can therefore be more relevant to view the gases' contributions in a significantly shorter time perspective. For the
most short-lived of the gases, especially the HCFCs, this will result in some markedly larger equivalency factors.
In accordance with general LCA practice, the EDIP method does,
however, recommend use, for equivalency factors, of ODP values representing the gases' full contributions.
Default Unit:
g CFC11/g substance
Notes:
ODP: stratospheric ozone depletion potential



Name:
Oil consumption
Description:
Inventory

Consumption of materials, ancillary substances and fuel are expressed in the inventory as primary intake of resources directly from nature, i.e, minerals, water, biomass etc. Resources are expressed as pure substances and not as ore.

Definition of reserve

The magnitude of the reserve is that fraction of the resource which can presently be exploited economically. Both known and estimated reserves of known occurrence are included.

Changes in geological information, technology, the price of extraction and production and the price of the raw material can affect the estimate of the reserves. Reserves beyond the capabilities of current production facilities may well exist (World Resources, 1990, 1992; BP, 1992).

Resource indicators are expressed as:

WR(j) = RC(i) / RES(PE),

Where

WR(j) is the product's normalized consumption of resource (j) expressed as the fraction of the known reserve per person in 1990

RC(j) is the consumption of resource (j) per product, i.e., the total consumption in the product system for the life of function unit.

RES(PE), is known reserves per person
Default Unit:
per/kg
Notes:
oil consumption



Name:
Palladium consumption
Description:
Inventory

Consumption of materials, ancillary substances and fuel are expressed in the inventory as primary intake of resources directly from nature, i.e, minerals, water, biomass etc. Resources are expressed as pure substances and not as ore.

Definition of reserve

The magnitude of the reserve is that fraction of the resource which can presently be exploited economically. Both known and estimated reserves of known occurrence are included.

Changes in geological information, technology, the price of extraction and production and the price of the raw material can affect the estimate of the reserves. Reserves beyond the capabilities of current production facilities may well exist (World Resources, 1990, 1992; BP, 1992).

Resource indicators are expressed as:

WR(j) = RC(i) / RES(PE),

Where

WR(j) is the product's normalized consumption of resource (j) expressed as the fraction of the known reserve per person in 1990

RC(j) is the consumption of resource (j) per product, i.e., the total consumption in the product system for the life of function unit.

RES(PE), is known reserves per person
Default Unit:
per/kg
Notes:
Palladium consumption



Name:
Platinum consumption
Description:
Inventory

Consumption of materials, ancillary substances and fuel are expressed in the inventory as primary intake of resources directly from nature, i.e, minerals, water, biomass etc. Resources are expressed as pure substances and not as ore.

Definition of reserve

The magnitude of the reserve is that fraction of the resource which can presently be exploited economically. Both known and estimated reserves of known occurrence are included.

Changes in geological information, technology, the price of extraction and production and the price of the raw material can affect the estimate of the reserves. Reserves beyond the capabilities of current production facilities may well exist (World Resources, 1990, 1992; BP, 1992).

Resource indicators are expressed as:

WR(j) = RC(i) / RES(PE),

Where

WR(j) is the product's normalized consumption of resource (j) expressed as the fraction of the known reserve per person in 1990

RC(j) is the consumption of resource (j) per product, i.e., the total consumption in the product system for the life of function unit.

RES(PE), is known reserves per person
Default Unit:
per/kg
Notes:
Platinum consumption



Name:
Silver consumption
Description:
Inventory

Consumption of materials, ancillary substances and fuel are expressed in the inventory as primary intake of resources directly from nature, i.e, minerals, water, biomass etc. Resources are expressed as pure substances and not as ore.

Definition of reserve

The magnitude of the reserve is that fraction of the resource which can presently be exploited economically. Both known and estimated reserves of known occurrence are included.

Changes in geological information, technology, the price of extraction and production and the price of the raw material can affect the estimate of the reserves. Reserves beyond the capabilities of current production facilities may well exist (World Resources, 1990, 1992; BP, 1992).

Resource indicators are expressed as:

WR(j) = RC(i) / RES(PE),

Where

WR(j) is the product's normalized consumption of resource (j) expressed as the fraction of the known reserve per person in 1990

RC(j) is the consumption of resource (j) per product, i.e., the total consumption in the product system for the life of function unit.

RES(PE), is known reserves per person
Default Unit:
per/kg
Notes:
Silver consumption



Name:
Tantalum consumption
Description:
Inventory

Consumption of materials, ancillary substances and fuel are expressed in the inventory as primary intake of resources directly from nature, i.e, minerals, water, biomass etc. Resources are expressed as pure substances and not as ore.

Definition of reserve

The magnitude of the reserve is that fraction of the resource which can presently be exploited economically. Both known and estimated reserves of known occurrence are included.

Changes in geological information, technology, the price of extraction and production and the price of the raw material can affect the estimate of the reserves. Reserves beyond the capabilities of current production facilities may well exist (World Resources, 1990, 1992; BP, 1992).

Resource indicators are expressed as:

WR(j) = RC(i) / RES(PE),

Where

WR(j) is the product's normalized consumption of resource (j) expressed as the fraction of the known reserve per person in 1990

RC(j) is the consumption of resource (j) per product, i.e., the total consumption in the product system for the life of function unit.

RES(PE), is known reserves per person
Default Unit:
per/kg
Notes:
Tantalum consumption



Name:
Tin consumption
Description:
Inventory

Consumption of materials, ancillary substances and fuel are expressed in the inventory as primary intake of resources directly from nature, i.e, minerals, water, biomass etc. Resources are expressed as pure substances and not as ore.

Definition of reserve

The magnitude of the reserve is that fraction of the resource which can presently be exploited economically. Both known and estimated reserves of known occurrence are included.

Changes in geological information, technology, the price of extraction and production and the price of the raw material can affect the estimate of the reserves. Reserves beyond the capabilities of current production facilities may well exist (World Resources, 1990, 1992; BP, 1992).

Resource indicators are expressed as:

WR(j) = RC(i) / RES(PE),

Where

WR(j) is the product's normalized consumption of resource (j) expressed as the fraction of the known reserve per person in 1990

RC(j) is the consumption of resource (j) per product, i.e., the total consumption in the product system for the life of function unit.

RES(PE), is known reserves per person
Default Unit:
per/kg
Notes:
Tin consumption



Name:
Wood consumption
Description:
Inventory

Consumption of materials, ancillary substances and fuel are expressed in the inventory as primary intake of resources directly from nature, i.e, minerals, water, biomass etc. Resources are expressed as pure substances and not as ore.

Definition of reserve

The magnitude of the reserve is that fraction of the resource which can presently be exploited economically. Both known and estimated reserves of known occurrence are included.

Changes in geological information, technology, the price of extraction and production and the price of the raw material can affect the estimate of the reserves. Reserves beyond the capabilities of current production facilities may well exist (World Resources, 1990, 1992; BP, 1992).

Resource indicators are expressed as:

WR(j) = RC(i) / RES(PE),

Where

WR(j) is the product's normalized consumption of resource (j) expressed as the fraction of the known reserve per person in 1990

RC(j) is the consumption of resource (j) per product, i.e., the total consumption in the product system for the life of function unit.

RES(PE), is known reserves per person
Default Unit:
per/kg
Notes:
wood consumption



Name:
Zinc consumption
Description:
Inventory

Consumption of materials, ancillary substances and fuel are expressed in the inventory as primary intake of resources directly from nature, i.e, minerals, water, biomass etc. Resources are expressed as pure substances and not as ore.

Definition of reserve

The magnitude of the reserve is that fraction of the resource which can presently be exploited economically. Both known and estimated reserves of known occurrence are included.

Changes in geological information, technology, the price of extraction and production and the price of the raw material can affect the estimate of the reserves. Reserves beyond the capabilities of current production facilities may well exist (World Resources, 1990, 1992; BP, 1992).

Resource indicators are expressed as:

WR(j) = RC(i) / RES(PE),

Where

WR(j) is the product's normalized consumption of resource (j) expressed as the fraction of the known reserve per person in 1990

RC(j) is the consumption of resource (j) per product, i.e., the total consumption in the product system for the life of function unit.

RES(PE), is known reserves per person
Default Unit:
per/kg
Notes:
Zinc consumption