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Impact Indication Principle

Category Indicators
 Name: Ag reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: Al reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: Ar reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: As reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: Au reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: B reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: Ba reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: Base cat-ion capacity Description: Indicators for production capacity of ecosystemDecreased yields of crop, fish&meat, wood and freshwater are end point effectsassociated with production capacity of ecosystems. Different types of crops are groupedtogether as they may be exchangeable as a source of carbohydrates. Different types offish&meat may be exchangeable as a protein source. Different types of wood may be exchanged in most applications in a modern society. The indicator chosen for theseimpact categories is a decreased production capacity of 1 kg. The weight refers to harvestweight for crop and fish&meat, while the dry substance weight is used for wood.Choosing dry weight basis for all three had given the most accurate measure, but normally dry weights are not available for crops or fish&meat while the forest industry often monitors the humidity of the wood it is buying.The default impact categories and category indicators are:Crop production capacity (Crop)Wood production capacity (wood)Fish&meat production capacity (Fish&meat)Base cat-ion capacityproduction capacity of irrigation water (irrigation water)Production capacity of drinking water (Drinking water) Default Unit: H + mole equivalents Notes: Base cat-ion capacity

 Name: Be reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: Bi reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: Br reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: Cd reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: Ce reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: Cl reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: Co reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: Cr reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: Cradle to gate GHG index Description: Emission of CO2 equivalents caused by the material or component during a selected part of its life cycle (cradle to gate). Default Unit: kg Notes: Created for VIEWS. Not original EPS indicator.

 Name: Crop Description: Indicators for production capacity of ecosystemDecreased yields of crop, fish&meat, wood and freshwater are end point effectsassociated with production capacity of ecosystems. Different types of crops are groupedtogether as they may be exchangeable as a source of carbohydrates. Different types offish&meat may be exchangeable as a protein source. Different types of wood may be exchanged in most applications in a modern society. The indicator chosen for theseimpact categories is a decreased production capacity of 1 kg. The weight refers to harvestweight for crop and fish&meat, while the dry substance weight is used for wood.Choosing dry weight basis for all three had given the most accurate measure, but normally dry weights are not available for crops or fish&meat while the forest industry often monitors the humidity of the wood it is buying.The default impact categories and category indicators are:Crop production capacity (Crop)Wood production capacity (wood)Fish&meat production capacity (Fish&meat)Base cat-ion capacityproduction capacity of irrigation water (irrigation water)Production capacity of drinking water (Drinking water) Default Unit: kg Notes: Weight at harvest

 Name: Cs reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: Cu reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: Drinking water Description: Indicators for production capacity of ecosystemDecreased yields of crop, fish&meat, wood and freshwater are end point effectsassociated with production capacity of ecosystems. Different types of crops are groupedtogether as they may be exchangeable as a source of carbohydrates. Different types offish&meat may be exchangeable as a protein source. Different types of wood may be exchanged in most applications in a modern society. The indicator chosen for theseimpact categories is a decreased production capacity of 1 kg. The weight refers to harvestweight for crop and fish&meat, while the dry substance weight is used for wood.Choosing dry weight basis for all three had given the most accurate measure, but normally dry weights are not available for crops or fish&meat while the forest industry often monitors the humidity of the wood it is buying.The default impact categories and category indicators are:Crop production capacity (Crop)Wood production capacity (wood)Fish&meat production capacity (Fish&meat)Base cat-ion capacityproduction capacity of irrigation water (irrigation water)Production capacity of drinking water (Drinking water) Default Unit: kg Notes: Fullfilling WHO criteriaon drinking water (1997)

 Name: Dy reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: Er reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: Eu reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: F reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: Fe reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: fish&meat Description: Indicators for production capacity of ecosystemDecreased yields of crop, fish&meat, wood and freshwater are end point effectsassociated with production capacity of ecosystems. Different types of crops are groupedtogether as they may be exchangeable as a source of carbohydrates. Different types offish&meat may be exchangeable as a protein source. Different types of wood may be exchanged in most applications in a modern society. The indicator chosen for theseimpact categories is a decreased production capacity of 1 kg. The weight refers to harvestweight for crop and fish&meat, while the dry substance weight is used for wood.Choosing dry weight basis for all three had given the most accurate measure, but normally dry weights are not available for crops or fish&meat while the forest industry often monitors the humidity of the wood it is buying.The default impact categories and category indicators are:Crop production capacity (Crop)Wood production capacity (wood)Fish&meat production capacity (Fish&meat)Base cat-ion capacityproduction capacity of irrigation water (irrigation water)Production capacity of drinking water (Drinking water) Default Unit: kg Notes: Full weight of animals

 Name: Fossil coal Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: Fossil oil Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: Ga reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: Gd reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: Ge reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: H reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: He reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: Hf reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: Hg reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: Ho reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: I reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: In reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: Ir reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: Irrigation water Description: Indicators for production capacity of ecosystemDecreased yields of crop, fish&meat, wood and freshwater are end point effectsassociated with production capacity of ecosystems. Different types of crops are groupedtogether as they may be exchangeable as a source of carbohydrates. Different types offish&meat may be exchangeable as a protein source. Different types of wood may be exchanged in most applications in a modern society. The indicator chosen for theseimpact categories is a decreased production capacity of 1 kg. The weight refers to harvestweight for crop and fish&meat, while the dry substance weight is used for wood.Choosing dry weight basis for all three had given the most accurate measure, but normally dry weights are not available for crops or fish&meat while the forest industry often monitors the humidity of the wood it is buying.The default impact categories and category indicators are:Crop production capacity (Crop)Wood production capacity (wood)Fish&meat production capacity (Fish&meat)Base cat-ion capacityproduction capacity of irrigation water (irrigation water)Production capacity of drinking water (Drinking water) Default Unit: kg Notes: Must be acceptable forirrigation, e.g. withrespect to persistent toxicsubstances

 Name: K reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: La reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: Li reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: Lu reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: Mg reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: Mn reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: Mo reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: Morbidity Description: Indicators for human health impactsA wide spectrum of environmental impacts on human health is described in literature.Some of the impacts have known mechanisms and some is known from epidemiological studies. The epidemiological studies are valuable as they result in quantitative relationsand as they use response parameters which are experienced by individuals. This meets thecriteria for the selection of impact categories. However epidemiological studies do not cover all types of health effects and therefore information from dose-response studies and other studies must be added in order to select category indicators that can fit into characterisation models.When choosing impact categories, category indicators and characterisation models thereare a similar situation as when deciding upon air quality criteria (WHO, 1987). Basicinformation is compiled in a comprehensive way, but there are many elements of judgement involved to make the final recommendation. For instance, when individuals are exposed to various concentrations of air pollutants and respiratory resistance is measured. The concentration where no effects are measured is determined. Ofteninformation is given about how the individuals in a medical sense reacts on elevatedconcentrations, like increase in respiratory resistance, but generally no description of howthe test persons feel are given.Strand (1991) and ExternE (1995) has reviewed human attitudes towards changes in health conditions in terms of illingness to pay, and from these studies it is possible to see for which types of health category indicators one may find a WTP estimate.Human health impact indicators may be chosen either to be numerous and very specific,or to be less and more general. The first may be tempting for the medical expert, but the information on corresponding cause-effects available today does not allow the use ofdiagnostic refinements more than in a few cases. There is also a limitation of studies ofattitudes to many environmental related health effects. Besides if there is too many indicators, it will be difficult to obtain a comprehensive view of the indicator results. Thistogether speaks for a limited number of health impact categories.EPS chose following indicators:Year of lost life (YOLL)severe morbiditymorbidityservere nuisancenuisanceIt may be relevant to separate morbidity from starvation, as starvation is an important endpoint for environmental impacts and different in character to normal morbidity, but atpresent the understanding of what starvation means is poor for laymen in the industrial world.An alternative way of defining a health impact indicator is used by Goedkoop et al. (1997). They use WHO’s concept of DALY, ‘disability adjusted life years’. It covers almost all health effects. For each type of health effect the degree of disability or similar is multiplied with its duration resulting in a figure corresponding to “lost person-years”.There is an advantage in using the DALY system in that it gives an overview of all healtheffects. The reason for not adopting it at present as a default method for the EPS impactindicators is that it includes a large portion of weighting, and that it belongs to theweighting step. Another reason is that a practical degree of resolution when presenting alife cycle assessment in terms of category indicator results would contain about tenindicators. Health effects being perhaps the most important of effects may be expressedin more indicators than the other. A closer look at what types of health effects that arerelated to environmental issues, we find cancer, respiratory effects, starvation, odour andsoiling as common effects. It is regarded desirable to match these types of effects in thecategory indicators chosen.However this does not mean that there could not be a harmonisation against the DALYconcept. Default Unit: p yr Notes: Reference:ExternE, (1995) "Externalities of Energy" European Commission, DG-XII, Vol 2, "Methodology", Brussels-Luxembourg, 1995.Goedkoop, M. and Spriensma, R., “The Eco-indicator 97: Proposal for the impactassessment methodology”, version 1.1, PréConsultants April 1997.

 Name: N reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: Na reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: Natural gas Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: Nb reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: Nd reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: Ne reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: NEX Description: NEX is Normalised EXtinction of species. Normalisation is made with respect to the species extinct during one year on a global basis.Bio-diversity impact indicatorsOur present knowledge about the relation between human activities and decrease of bio-diversityis limited, as is the availability of data on the state of bio-diversity. Some records are kept, e.g. on endangered species (WCMC, 1999) and sometimes the mainthreat causes. One of the greatest problem in finding suitable impact category indicators lie in the understanding of the quantitative value of bio-diversity. In short term aspects bio-diversity may be considered to be a resource like others, for instance for moreefficiently producing food and medicine. In the long run a sufficient bio-diversity isabsolutely crucial to human life and there is no trade-off options.Part of the value of bio-diversity may overlap the safe guard subjects ‘productioncapacity of ecosystems’, and ‘recreational and cultural values’. The safeguard subject‘bio-diversity’ is focussing on the genetic resource values.The most well known change in the safe guard subject bio-diversity caused by human activities is extinction of species. Each year a number of species is extinct. The value given to this change can be estimated from the cost of counteractive measures. Therefore it seems reasonable to use the yearly extinction of species as an indicator for the safeguard subject.There is however a problem of finding the contribution to the yearly depletion fromvarious activities. One reason is that it is not known exactly which species that are beingextinct.The only way of estimating the contribution to species extinction is via the probability of extinction of red-listed species. Focussing on preserving red-listed species is claimed tobe a good strategy for preserving other bio-diversity qualities as well.So, the category indicator is defined as ‘the normalised extinction of species’ Theindicator unit is dimensionless. The category indicator name is shortened to NEX. Thenormalisation is made with respect to the species extinct during 1990.Finding an indicator value may be difficult. However, considering that the main threatstoday are habitat reductions, hunting, harvesting, emissions of toxic substances andsimilar, estimation of the contribution to extinction may be made on via estimated onreduction of habitat area, number of individuals or number of species in a group or similar. Default Unit: Dimension-less Notes: The normalisation is madewith respect to the species extinct during 1990

 Name: Ni reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: Nuisance Description: Indicators for human health impactsA wide spectrum of environmental impacts on human health is described in literature.Some of the impacts have known mechanisms and some is known from epidemiological studies. The epidemiological studies are valuable as they result in quantitative relationsand as they use response parameters which are experienced by individuals. This meets thecriteria for the selection of impact categories. However epidemiological studies do not cover all types of health effects and therefore information from dose-response studies and other studies must be added in order to select category indicators that can fit into characterisation models.When choosing impact categories, category indicators and characterisation models thereare a similar situation as when deciding upon air quality criteria (WHO, 1987). Basicinformation is compiled in a comprehensive way, but there are many elements of judgement involved to make the final recommendation. For instance, when individuals are exposed to various concentrations of air pollutants and respiratory resistance is measured. The concentration where no effects are measured is determined. Ofteninformation is given about how the individuals in a medical sense reacts on elevatedconcentrations, like increase in respiratory resistance, but generally no description of howthe test persons feel are given.Strand (1991) and ExternE (1995) has reviewed human attitudes towards changes in health conditions in terms of illingness to pay, and from these studies it is possible to see for which types of health category indicators one may find a WTP estimate.Human health impact indicators may be chosen either to be numerous and very specific,or to be less and more general. The first may be tempting for the medical expert, but the information on corresponding cause-effects available today does not allow the use ofdiagnostic refinements more than in a few cases. There is also a limitation of studies ofattitudes to many environmental related health effects. Besides if there is too many indicators, it will be difficult to obtain a comprehensive view of the indicator results. Thistogether speaks for a limited number of health impact categories.EPS chose following indicators:Year of lost life (YOLL)severe morbiditymorbidityservere nuisancenuisanceIt may be relevant to separate morbidity from starvation, as starvation is an important endpoint for environmental impacts and different in character to normal morbidity, but atpresent the understanding of what starvation means is poor for laymen in the industrial world.An alternative way of defining a health impact indicator is used by Goedkoop et al. (1997). They use WHO’s concept of DALY, ‘disability adjusted life years’. It covers almost all health effects. For each type of health effect the degree of disability or similar is multiplied with its duration resulting in a figure corresponding to “lost person-years”.There is an advantage in using the DALY system in that it gives an overview of all healtheffects. The reason for not adopting it at present as a default method for the EPS impactindicators is that it includes a large portion of weighting, and that it belongs to theweighting step. Another reason is that a practical degree of resolution when presenting alife cycle assessment in terms of category indicator results would contain about tenindicators. Health effects being perhaps the most important of effects may be expressedin more indicators than the other. A closer look at what types of health effects that arerelated to environmental issues, we find cancer, respiratory effects, starvation, odour andsoiling as common effects. It is regarded desirable to match these types of effects in thecategory indicators chosen.However this does not mean that there could not be a harmonisation against the DALYconcept. Default Unit: person-year Notes: Irritating, but not causing any direct actionReference:ExternE, (1995) "Externalities of Energy" European Commission, DG-XII, Vol 2, "Methodology", Brussels-Luxembourg, 1995.Goedkoop, M. and Spriensma, R., “The Eco-indicator 97: Proposal for the impactassessment methodology”, version 1.1, PréConsultants April 1997.

 Name: O reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: Os reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: P reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: Pb reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: Pd reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: Pr reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: Pt reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: Rb reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: Re reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: Rh reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: Ru reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: S reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: Sb reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: Sc reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: Se reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: Severe morbidity Description: Indicators for human health impactsA wide spectrum of environmental impacts on human health is described in literature.Some of the impacts have known mechanisms and some is known from epidemiological studies. The epidemiological studies are valuable as they result in quantitative relationsand as they use response parameters which are experienced by individuals. This meets thecriteria for the selection of impact categories. However epidemiological studies do not cover all types of health effects and therefore information from dose-response studies and other studies must be added in order to select category indicators that can fit into characterisation models.When choosing impact categories, category indicators and characterisation models thereare a similar situation as when deciding upon air quality criteria (WHO, 1987). Basicinformation is compiled in a comprehensive way, but there are many elements of judgement involved to make the final recommendation. For instance, when individuals are exposed to various concentrations of air pollutants and respiratory resistance is measured. The concentration where no effects are measured is determined. Ofteninformation is given about how the individuals in a medical sense reacts on elevatedconcentrations, like increase in respiratory resistance, but generally no description of howthe test persons feel are given.Strand (1991) and ExternE (1995) has reviewed human attitudes towards changes in health conditions in terms of illingness to pay, and from these studies it is possible to see for which types of health category indicators one may find a WTP estimate.Human health impact indicators may be chosen either to be numerous and very specific,or to be less and more general. The first may be tempting for the medical expert, but the information on corresponding cause-effects available today does not allow the use ofdiagnostic refinements more than in a few cases. There is also a limitation of studies ofattitudes to many environmental related health effects. Besides if there is too many indicators, it will be difficult to obtain a comprehensive view of the indicator results. Thistogether speaks for a limited number of health impact categories.EPS chose following indicators:Year of lost life (YOLL)severe morbiditymorbidityservere nuisancenuisanceIt may be relevant to separate morbidity from starvation, as starvation is an important endpoint for environmental impacts and different in character to normal morbidity, but atpresent the understanding of what starvation means is poor for laymen in the industrial world.An alternative way of defining a health impact indicator is used by Goedkoop et al. (1997). They use WHO’s concept of DALY, ‘disability adjusted life years’. It covers almost all health effects. For each type of health effect the degree of disability or similar is multiplied with its duration resulting in a figure corresponding to “lost person-years”.There is an advantage in using the DALY system in that it gives an overview of all healtheffects. The reason for not adopting it at present as a default method for the EPS impactindicators is that it includes a large portion of weighting, and that it belongs to theweighting step. Another reason is that a practical degree of resolution when presenting alife cycle assessment in terms of category indicator results would contain about tenindicators. Health effects being perhaps the most important of effects may be expressedin more indicators than the other. A closer look at what types of health effects that arerelated to environmental issues, we find cancer, respiratory effects, starvation, odour andsoiling as common effects. It is regarded desirable to match these types of effects in thecategory indicators chosen.However this does not mean that there could not be a harmonisation against the DALYconcept. Default Unit: person-year Notes: Including starvationReference:ExternE, (1995) "Externalities of Energy" European Commission, DG-XII, Vol 2, "Methodology", Brussels-Luxembourg, 1995.Goedkoop, M. and Spriensma, R., “The Eco-indicator 97: Proposal for the impactassessment methodology”, version 1.1, PréConsultants April 1997.

 Name: Severe nuisance Description: Indicators for human health impactsA wide spectrum of environmental impacts on human health is described in literature.Some of the impacts have known mechanisms and some is known from epidemiological studies. The epidemiological studies are valuable as they result in quantitative relationsand as they use response parameters which are experienced by individuals. This meets thecriteria for the selection of impact categories. However epidemiological studies do not cover all types of health effects and therefore information from dose-response studies and other studies must be added in order to select category indicators that can fit into characterisation models.When choosing impact categories, category indicators and characterisation models thereare a similar situation as when deciding upon air quality criteria (WHO, 1987). Basicinformation is compiled in a comprehensive way, but there are many elements of judgement involved to make the final recommendation. For instance, when individuals are exposed to various concentrations of air pollutants and respiratory resistance is measured. The concentration where no effects are measured is determined. Ofteninformation is given about how the individuals in a medical sense reacts on elevatedconcentrations, like increase in respiratory resistance, but generally no description of howthe test persons feel are given.Strand (1991) and ExternE (1995) has reviewed human attitudes towards changes in health conditions in terms of illingness to pay, and from these studies it is possible to see for which types of health category indicators one may find a WTP estimate.Human health impact indicators may be chosen either to be numerous and very specific,or to be less and more general. The first may be tempting for the medical expert, but the information on corresponding cause-effects available today does not allow the use ofdiagnostic refinements more than in a few cases. There is also a limitation of studies ofattitudes to many environmental related health effects. Besides if there is too many indicators, it will be difficult to obtain a comprehensive view of the indicator results. Thistogether speaks for a limited number of health impact categories.EPS chose following indicators:Year of lost life (YOLL)severe morbiditymorbidityservere nuisancenuisanceIt may be relevant to separate morbidity from starvation, as starvation is an important endpoint for environmental impacts and different in character to normal morbidity, but atpresent the understanding of what starvation means is poor for laymen in the industrial world.An alternative way of defining a health impact indicator is used by Goedkoop et al. (1997). They use WHO’s concept of DALY, ‘disability adjusted life years’. It covers almost all health effects. For each type of health effect the degree of disability or similar is multiplied with its duration resulting in a figure corresponding to “lost person-years”.There is an advantage in using the DALY system in that it gives an overview of all healtheffects. The reason for not adopting it at present as a default method for the EPS impactindicators is that it includes a large portion of weighting, and that it belongs to theweighting step. Another reason is that a practical degree of resolution when presenting alife cycle assessment in terms of category indicator results would contain about tenindicators. Health effects being perhaps the most important of effects may be expressedin more indicators than the other. A closer look at what types of health effects that arerelated to environmental issues, we find cancer, respiratory effects, starvation, odour andsoiling as common effects. It is regarded desirable to match these types of effects in thecategory indicators chosen.However this does not mean that there could not be a harmonisation against the DALYconcept. Default Unit: person-year Notes: Would normally cause areaction to avoid the nuisanceReference:ExternE, (1995) "Externalities of Energy" European Commission, DG-XII, Vol 2, "Methodology", Brussels-Luxembourg, 1995.Goedkoop, M. and Spriensma, R., “The Eco-indicator 97: Proposal for the impactassessment methodology”, version 1.1, PréConsultants April 1997.

 Name: Sm reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: Sn reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: Sr reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: Ta reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: Tb reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: Te reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: Th reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: Ti reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: Tl reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: Tm reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: U reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: V reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: W reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: Wood Description: Indicators for production capacity of ecosystemDecreased yields of crop, fish&meat, wood and freshwater are end point effectsassociated with production capacity of ecosystems. Different types of crops are groupedtogether as they may be exchangeable as a source of carbohydrates. Different types offish&meat may be exchangeable as a protein source. Different types of wood may be exchanged in most applications in a modern society. The indicator chosen for theseimpact categories is a decreased production capacity of 1 kg. The weight refers to harvestweight for crop and fish&meat, while the dry substance weight is used for wood.Choosing dry weight basis for all three had given the most accurate measure, but normally dry weights are not available for crops or fish&meat while the forest industry often monitors the humidity of the wood it is buying.The default impact categories and category indicators are:Crop production capacity (Crop)Wood production capacity (wood)Fish&meat production capacity (Fish&meat)Base cat-ion capacityproduction capacity of irrigation water (irrigation water)Production capacity of drinking water (Drinking water) Default Unit: kg Notes: Dry weight basis

 Name: Y reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.

 Name: Yb reserves Description: Indicators for abiotic stock resourceNatural stock resourcesSome authors have suggested impact indicators where several resources are characteriseddue to their use to reserve ratio or due to their abundance (Lindfors et al., 1994). Thereason for this is mainly to be able to highlight the use of scarce resources in an LCA, butit doubtful if this can be regarded as a characterisation based on natural science. Itincludes a large part of weighting when aggregating resources, many of which find verydifferent use, in one measure. There is no common mechanism like in the formulation of the GWP that applies to the consequences of depletion of different resources.In the choice of category indicators for the EPS default method, a resource, such as ametal ore is considered unique with regard to the metal. It is only exchangeable with regard to its concentration, chemical composition and location. The impact indicator is therefore defined as 1 kg of the resource in a reference state from which it is mined, i.e. in the state, which is normally referred to as reserves.Land area is sometimes treated as a resource. Following the second and fifth of theoriginal principles (in table 4.3) for the identification of impact categories and indicators,we find that no change of global surface areas is possible due to human activities. It is only the quality of areas that can be changed. The quality is described by the impact categories: production capacity, biodiversity and aesthetic values. The qualitative change between land/water may be described by those impact categories.Anthropogenic stock resourcesBuildings, machines, construction materials etc. represent values that can be destroyed by environmental impacts such as corrosion and soiling. There is no separate indicators formulated for these, but the impacts may still be accounted for in the impact modelling.For instance if there is a destruction of steel by corrosion from SO2, impacts on the safeguard subjects are modelled through just including new pathways in the model. Thesepathways includes impacts from emissions and resource depletion when substituting and repairing the steel constructions. The default category indicators are:“element name” reservesNatural gas reservesOil reserves Coal reserves “mineral name” reserves Default Unit: kg Notes: Lindfors, L.G.,Christiansen, K., Hoffman, L., Virtanen, Y., Juntilla, V. Leskinen, A.,Hanssen, O-J., Rønning, A., Ekvall, T. and Finnveden, G., Nordic Guidelines on Life-CycleAssessment, Nordic Council of Ministers, Report Nord 1995:20. Copenhagen1994.