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SPINE LCI dataset: HVO combustion in heavy duty truck or bus, Euro VI, tank-to-wheel, f3 fuels


Technical System

System Boundaries

Flow Data

About Inventory

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Finished Y

Date Completed 2013-11-30

Copyright f3 - Swedish Knowledge Centre for Renewable Transportation Fuels

Availability Public

Technical System
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Name HVO combustion in heavy duty truck or bus, Euro VI, tank-to-wheel, f3 fuels

Functional Unit 1 MJ

Functional Unit Explanation 1 MJ input of HVO to vehicle tank

Process Type Gate to grave


Sector Fuel


Technical system description The data represent emissions from hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) combustion in heavy duty truck or bus, Euro VI, tank-to-wheel.
The emission legislation uses the definition of a heavy duty vehicle having a gross weight of 3.5 tons or more.
The reported emission factors should be considered as generic data, and it should be noted that the emissions for a specific vehicle and a specific mission might differ from those generic data. For example, the limit values for certification of engines have been used as basis for deriving some of the emission factors. The duty cycles used for certification are defined to cover the whole range of typical loads of an engine in different operations. The operation of a specific vehicle can however differ from the duty cycle used in the certification, resulting in different emissions than calculated with the generic emission factors. E.g. for the regulated emissions: nitrous oxides, particles, total organic compounds and carbon monoxide, the values are conservative based on the maximum emissions limits per kWh of engine output when driving at the best point (the optimal engine speed/torque operating point). In reality, the values are often lower.

System Boundaries
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Nature Boundary

Time Boundary 2010 - 2014

Geographical Boundary Europe

Other Boundaries

Allocations No.

Systems Expansions No.

Flow Data

General Activity QMetaData
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Date Conceived
Data Type
Method The emission factors (EF, kg/MJ) for the regulated emissions have been estimated based on WHTC (World Harmonized Transient Cycle for truck and bus engines), legislation limits for Euro VI (Commission Regulation (EC) No 582/2011).The WHTC cycle is for heavy duty engines and vehicle ( Equation for calculation of emission factors for fuel use: Efficiency: 0.44 (?)= (energy work/energy in fuel) which is the efficiency at the best point (the optimal engine speed/torque operating point) and which gives the maximum emission factors within the legislation limit. EF fuel use (g/MJ)=EF work (g/kWh)/3.6*? Emissions of CO2 and SO2 have been calculated based on carbon- and sulphur content in the fuel, see documentation "Data compilation method for a specific flow" and "Reference" in the Flow table. Emissions of CH4 was calculated from JRC (2013) and N2O was best estimate.

Literature Reference Main references: (1) Commission Regulation (EC) No 582/2011 (2) (3) JRC (2013) Tank-to-wheels, Report Version 4.0, JEC well -to-wheels analysis, well-to-wheels analysis of future automotive fuels and and powertrains in the European context, July 2013 (4) Dir 2009/30/EC (5) HVO Handbook: Mikkonen, S. et al. (2012). HVO, Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil - A Premium Renewable Biofuel for Diesel Engines. Neste Oil Corporation, p. 15.


Flow Table and Specific Meta Data
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QMetaData Direction FlowType Substance Quantity Min Max SDev Unit Environment Geography

Input Product Hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) 1 MJ Technosphere

Output Emission Carbon dioxide (fossil) 0 kg Air

Output Emission Carbon monoxide 4.88888888888889E-04 kg Air

Output Emission Methane 1.95555555555556E-06 kg Air

Output Emission Nitrogen oxides 5.62222222222222E-05 kg Air

Output Emission Nitrous oxide 6.11111111111111E-06 kg Air

Output Emission Non-methane volatile organic compounds 0.0000176 kg Air

Output Emission Particles (unspecified) 1.22222222222222E-06 kg Air

Output Emission Sulfur dioxide 1.36054421768707E-07 kg Air

About Inventory
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Publication Hallberg et al, (2013) "Setup of f3 data network for Well-to-wheel (method and) LCI data for fossil and renewable fuels in the Swedish market", f3 - Swedish Knowledge Centre for Renewable Transportation Fuels, f3 project report, Available at

Intended User LCA practitioner

General Purpose To provide and publish best available LCI data on vehicle biofuels and fossil fuels well to tank and tank to wheel relevant for the Swedish market.

Detailed Purpose

Commissioner - f3 - The Swedish Knowledge Centre for Renewable Transportation Fuels.

Practitioner - Lisbeth Dahllöf (Volvo Group), Helen Mikaelsson (Scania).

Reviewer - Lisa Hallberg, IVL


About Data This dataset is the part of the results from the f3 project "Setup of f3 data network for Well-to-wheel (Method and) LCI data for fossil and renewable fuels in the Swedish market". Further details about this project can be found in the project report.


SPINE Data Report
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